Priyank Khandelwal, Nirav Patel, Alfred Pokmeng See and M. Ali Aziz-Sultan
Samir Sur, Brian Snelling, Priyank Khandelwal, Justin M. Caplan, Eric C. Peterson, Robert M. Starke and Dileep R. Yavagal
The goals of this study were to describe the authors' recent institutional experience with the transradial approach to anterior circulation large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) in acute ischemic stroke patients and to report its technical feasibility.
The authors reviewed their institutional database to identify patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy via a transradial approach over the 2 previous years, encompassing their experience using modern techniques including stent retrievers.
Eleven patients were identified. In 8 (72%) of these patients the right radial artery was chosen as the primary access site. In the remaining patients, transfemoral access was initially attempted. Revascularization (modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia [mTICI] score ≥ 2b) was achieved in 10 (91%) of 11 cases. The average time to first pass with the stent retriever was 64 minutes. No access-related complications occurred.
Transradial access for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation LVOs is safe and feasible. Further comparative studies are needed to determine criteria for selecting the transradial approach in this setting.
Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Ramsey Ashour, Priyank Khandelwal, Nirav J. Patel, Kai U. Frerichs and Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan
Successful application of endovascular neurosurgery depends on high-quality imaging to define the pathology and the devices as they are being deployed. This is especially challenging in the treatment of complex cases, particularly in proximity to the skull base or in patients who have undergone prior endovascular treatment. The authors sought to optimize real-time image guidance using a simple algorithm that can be applied to any existing fluoroscopy system. Exposure management (exposure level, pulse management) and image post-processing parameters (edge enhancement) were modified from traditional fluoroscopy to improve visualization of device position and material density during deployment. Examples include the deployment of coils in small aneurysms, coils in giant aneurysms, the Pipeline embolization device (PED), the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device, and carotid artery stents. The authors report on the development of the protocol and their experience using representative cases.
The stent deployment protocol is an image capture and post-processing algorithm that can be applied to existing fluoroscopy systems to improve real-time visualization of device deployment without hardware modifications. Improved image guidance facilitates aneurysm coil packing and proper positioning and deployment of carotid artery stents, flow diverters, and the WEB device, especially in the context of complex anatomy and an obscured field of view.
Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Priyank Khandelwal, Ashutosh Mahapatra, Kai U. Frerichs, Rose Du, Nirav J. Patel and Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan
Paraclinoid aneurysms represent approximately 5% of intracranial aneurysms (Drake et al. ). Visual impairment, which occurs in 16%–40% of patients, is among the most common presentations of these aneurysms (Day , Lai and Morgan , Sahlein et al. , and Silva et al. ). Flow-diverting stents, such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), are increasingly used to treat these aneurysms, in part because of their theoretical reduction of mass effect (Fiorella et al. ). Limited data on paraclinoid aneurysms treated with a PED exist, and few studies have compared outcomes of patients after PED placement with those of patients after clipping or coiling.
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 115 patients with an aneurysm of the cavernous to ophthalmic segments of the internal carotid artery treated with clipping, coiling, or PED deployment between January 2011 and March 2017. Postoperative complications were defined as new neurological deficit, aneurysm rupture, recanalization, or other any operative complication that required reintervention.
A total of 125 paraclinoid aneurysms in 115 patients were treated, including 70 with PED placement, 23 with coiling, and 32 with clipping. Eighteen (14%) aneurysms were ruptured. The mean aneurysm size was 8.2 mm, and the mean follow-up duration was 18.4 months. Most aneurysms were discovered incidentally, but visual impairment, which occurred in 21 (18%) patients, was the most common presenting symptom. Among these patients, 15 (71%) experienced improvement in their visual symptoms after treatment, including 14 (93%) of these 15 patients who were treated with PED deployment. Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 89% of the patients. Complications were seen in 17 (15%) patients, including 10 (16%) after PED placement, 2 (9%) after coiling, and 5 (17%) after clipping. Patients with incomplete aneurysm occlusion had a higher rate of procedural complications than those with complete occlusion (p = 0.02). The rate of postoperative visual improvement was significantly higher among patients treated with PED deployment than in those treated with coiling (p = 0.01). The significant predictors of procedural complications were incomplete occlusion (p = 0.03), hypertension, (p = 0.04), and diabetes (p = 0.03).
In a large series in which patient outcomes after treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms were compared, the authors found a high rate of aneurysm occlusion and a comparable rate of procedural complications among patients treated with PED placement compared with the rates among those who underwent clipping or coiling. For patients who presented with visual symptoms, those treated with PED placement had the highest rate of visual improvement. The results of this study suggest that the PED is an effective and safe modality for treating paraclinoid aneurysms, especially for patients who present with visual symptoms.
Neil Majmundar, Pratit Patel, Vincent Dodson, Ivo Bach, James K. Liu, Luke Tomycz and Priyank Khandelwal
The transradial approach (TRA) has been widely adopted by interventional cardiologists but is only now being accepted by neurointerventionalists. The benefits of the TRA over the traditional transfemoral approach (TFA) include reduced risk of adverse clinical events and faster recovery. The authors assessed the safety and feasibility of the TRA for neurointerventional cases in the pediatric population.
Pediatric patients undergoing cerebrovascular interventions since implementation of the TRA at the authors’ institution were retrospectively reviewed. Pertinent patient information, procedure indications, vessels catheterized, fluoroscopy time, and complications were reviewed.
There were 4 patients in this case series, and their ages ranged from 13 to 15 years. Each patient tolerated the procedure performed using the TRA without any postprocedural issues, and only 1 patient experienced radial artery spasm, which resolved with the administration of intraarterial verapamil. None of the patients required conversion to the TFA.
The TRA can be considered a safe alternative to the TFA for neurointerventional procedures in the pediatric population and provides potential advantages. However, as pediatric patients require special consideration due to their smaller-caliber arteries, routine use of ultrasound guidance is advised when attempting the TRA.
Kunakorn Atchaneeyasakul, Anita Tipirneni, Tony Zhang, Priyank Khandelwal, Sudheer Ambekar, Brian Snelling, Sushrut Dharmadhikari, Chuanhui Dong, Luis Guada, Kevin Ramdas, Seemant Chaturvedi, Tatjana Rundek and Dileep R. Yavagal
Thyroid disorder has been known to affect vascular function and has been associated with aortic aneurysm formation in some cases; however, the connection has not been well studied. The authors hypothesized that hypothyroidism is associated with the formation of cerebral aneurysms.
The authors performed a retrospective case-control study of consecutive patients who had undergone cerebral angiography at an academic, tertiary care medical center in the period from April 2004 through April 2014. Patients with unruptured aneurysms were identified from among those who had undergone 3-vessel catheter angiography. Age-matched controls without cerebral aneurysms on angiography were also identified from the same database. Patients with previous subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. History of hypothyroidism and other risk factors were recorded.
Two hundred forty-three patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms were identified and age matched with 243 controls. Mean aneurysm size was 9.6 ± 0.8 mm. Hypothyroidism was present in 40 patients (16.5%) and 9 matched controls (3.7%; adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–7.8, p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that men with hypothyroidism had higher odds of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm diagnosis than the women with hypothyroidism, with an adjusted OR of 12.7 (95% CI 1.3–121.9) versus an OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.0–6.4) on multivariate analysis.
Hypothyroidism appears to be independently associated with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, with a higher effect seen in men. Given the known pathophysiological associations between hypothyroidism and vascular dysfunction, this finding warrants further exploration.