Neil Haranhalli, Nnenna Mbabuike, Sanjeet S. Grewal, Tasneem F. Hasan, Michael G. Heckman, William D. Freeman, Vivek Gupta, Prasanna Vibhute, Benjamin L. Brown, David A. Miller, Babak S. Jahromi and Rabih G. Tawk
The role of CT perfusion (CTP) in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a matter of debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the areas of infarction and penumbra on CTP scans and functional outcome in patients with AIS.
This was a retrospective review of 100 consecutively treated patients with acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CTP at admission between February 2011 and October 2014. On CTP, the volume of ischemic core and penumbra was measured using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). CTA findings were also noted, including the site of occlusion and regional leptomeningeal collateral (rLMC) score. Functional outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score obtained at discharge. Associations of CTP and CTA parameters with mRS scores at discharge were assessed using multivariable proportional odds logistic regression models.
The median age was 67 years (range 19–95 years), and the median NIH Stroke Scale score was 16 (range 2–35). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for potential confounding variables, having an infarct on CTP scans in the following regions was associated with a worse mRS score at discharge: insula ribbon (p = 0.043), perisylvian fissure (p < 0.001), motor strip (p = 0.007), M2 (p < 0.001), and M5 (p = 0.023). A worse mRS score at discharge was more common in patients with a greater volume of infarct core (p = 0.024) and less common in patients with a greater rLMC score (p = 0.004).
The results of this study provide evidence that several CTP parameters are independent predictors of functional outcome in patients with AIS and have potential to identify those patients most likely to benefit from reperfusion therapy in the treatment of AIS.
Sanjeet S. Grewal, Richard S. Zimmerman, Gregory Worrell, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, William O. Tatum, Amy Z. Crepeau, David A. Woodrum, Krzysztof R. Gorny, Joel P. Felmlee, Robert E. Watson, Joseph M. Hoxworth, Vivek Gupta, Prasanna Vibhute, Max R. Trenerry, Timothy J. Kaufmann, W. Richard Marsh, Robert E. Wharen Jr. and Jamie J. Van Gompel
Although it is still early in its application, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has increasingly been employed as a surgical option for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed to describe mesial temporal lobe ablation volumes and seizure outcomes following LiTT across the Mayo Clinic’s 3 epilepsy surgery centers.
This was a multi-site, single-institution, retrospective review of seizure outcomes and ablation volumes following LiTT for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy between October 2011 and October 2015. Pre-ablation and post-ablation follow-up volumes of the hippocampus were measured using FreeSurfer, and the volume of ablated tissue was also measured on intraoperative MRI using a supervised spline-based edge detection algorithm. To determine seizure outcomes, results were compared between those patients who were seizure free and those who continued to experience seizures.
There were 23 patients who underwent mesial temporal LiTT within the study period. Fifteen patients (65%) had left-sided procedures. The median follow-up was 34 months (range 12–70 months). The mean ablation volume was 6888 mm3. Median hippocampal ablation was 65%, with a median amygdala ablation of 43%. At last follow-up, 11 (48%) of these patients were seizure free. There was no correlation between ablation volume and seizure freedom (p = 0.69). There was also no correlation between percent ablation of the amygdala (p = 0.28) or hippocampus (p = 0.82) and seizure outcomes. Twelve patients underwent formal testing with computational visual fields. Visual field changes were seen in 67% of patients who underwent testing. Comparing the 5 patients with clinically noticeable visual field deficits to the rest of the cohort showed no significant difference in ablation volume between those patients with visual field deficits and those without (p = 0.94). There were 11 patients with follow-up neuropsychological testing. Within this group, verbal learning retention was 76% in the patients with left-sided procedures and 89% in those with right-sided procedures.
In this study, there was no significant correlation between the ablation volume after LiTT and seizure outcomes. Visual field deficits were common in formally tested patients, much as in patients treated with open temporal lobectomy. Further studies are required to determine the role of amygdalohippocampal ablation.