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Guru Dutta Satyarthee and Luis R. Moscote-Salazar

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Mun-Chun Yeap, Ching-Chang Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Po-Chuan Hsieh, Cheng-Chi Lee, Yu-Tse Liu, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, and Po-Hsun Tu

OBJECTIVE

Cranioplasty is a relatively simple and less invasive intervention, but it is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. The incidence of, and the risk factors for, such seizures and the effect of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have not been well studied. The authors’ aim was to evaluate the risk factors that predispose patients to postcranioplasty seizures and to examine the role of seizure prophylaxis in cranioplasty.

METHODS

The records of patients who had undergone cranioplasty at the authors’ medical center between 2009 and 2014 with at last 2 years of follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical characteristics, the occurrence of postoperative seizures, and postoperative complications were analyzed.

RESULTS

Among the 583 patients eligible for inclusion in the study, 247 had preexisting seizures or used AEDs before the cranioplasty and 336 had no seizures prior to cranioplasty. Of these 336 patients, 89 (26.5%) had new-onset seizures following cranioplasty. Prophylactic AEDs were administered to 56 patients for 1 week after cranioplasty. No early seizures occurred in these patients, and this finding was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Liver cirrhosis, intraoperative blood loss, and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were risk factors for postcranioplasty seizures in the multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Cranioplasty is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. The prophylactic use of AEDs can reduce the occurrence of early seizures.

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Tsung-Ying Yu, Chao-Hung Chen, Man-Wei Hua, Chiao-Chin Lee, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Cheng-Chia Lee, Ching-Jen Chen, Benjamin Ball, David Schlesinger, Zhiyuan Xu, Chun-Po Yen, and Jason Sheehan

OBJECT

Onyx, an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed in a dimethyl sulfoxide solvent, is currently one of the most widely used liquid materials for embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The goal of this study was to define the risks and benefits of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients who have previously undergone partial AVM embolization with Onyx.

METHODS

Among a consecutive series of 199 patients who underwent SRS between January 2007 and December 2012 at the University of Virginia, 25 patients had Onyx embolization prior to SRS (the embolization group). To analyze the obliteration rates and complications, 50 patients who underwent SRS without prior embolization (the no-embolization group) were matched by propensity score method. The matched variables included age, sex, nidus volume before SRS, margin dose, Spetzler-Martin grade, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale score, and median imaging follow-up period.

RESULTS

After Onyx embolization, 18 AVMs were reduced in size. Total obliteration was achieved in 6 cases (24%) at a median of 27.5 months after SRS. In the no-embolization group, total obliteration was achieved in 20 patients (40%) at a median of 22.4 months after SRS. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated obliteration rates of 17.7% and 34.1% in the embolization group at 2 and 4 years, respectively. In the no-embolization group, the corresponding obliteration rates were 27.0% and 55.9%. The between-groups difference in obliteration rates after SRS did not achieve statistical significance. The difference in complications, including adverse radiation effects, hemorrhage episodes, seizure control, and patient mortality also did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

Onyx embolization can effectively reduce the size of many AVMs. This case-control study did not show any statistically significant difference in the rates of embolization or complications after SRS in patients who had previously undergone Onyx embolization and those who had not.

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Po-Chou Liliang, Kuo-Sheng Hung, Ching-Hsiao Cheng, Han-Jung Chen, Ikuho Ohta, and Chun-Chung Lui

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Gun-Ha Kim, Joo Hee Seo, Seema Schroff, Po-Ching Chen, Ki Hyeong Lee, and James Baumgartner

OBJECTIVE

Hemispherectomy can produce remarkable seizure control of medically intractable hemispheric epilepsy in children, but some patients continue to have seizures after surgery. A frequent cause of treatment failure is incomplete surgical disconnection of the abnormal hemisphere. This study explores whether intraoperative 3-T MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) during hemispherectomy can identify areas of incomplete disconnection and allow complete disconnection during a single surgery.

METHODS

The charts of 32 patients with epilepsy who underwent hemispherectomy between January 2012 and July 2014 at the Florida Hospital for Children were reviewed. Patients were grouped as having had curative or palliative hemispherectomy. To assess the completeness of disconnection when the surgeon considered the operation completed, intraoperative 3-T MRI-DTI was performed. If incomplete disconnection was identified, additional surgery was performed until MRI-DTI sequences confirmed satisfactory disconnection. Seizure outcome data were collected via medical records at last follow-up.

RESULTS

Of 32 patients who underwent hemispherectomy, 23 had curative hemispherectomy and 9 had palliative hemispherectomy. In 11 of 32 surgeries, the first intraoperative MRI-DTI sequences suggested incomplete disconnection and additional surgery followed by repeat MRI-DTI was performed. Complete disconnection was accomplished in 30 of 32 patients (93.8%). Two of 32 disconnections (6.3%) were incomplete on postoperative imaging. Cross-sectional results showed that 21 of 23 patients (91.3%) who had curative hemispherectomy remained free of seizures (International League Against Epilepsy Class 1) at a median follow-up of 1.7 years (range 0.4–2.9 years). The longitudinal seizure freedom after curative hemispherectomy was 95.2% (SE 0.05) at 6 months, 90.5% (SE 0.06) at 1 year, and 90.5% (SE 0.05) at 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative 3-T MRI-DTI sequences can identify incomplete disconnection during hemispherectomy and allow higher rates of complete disconnection in a single surgery. Higher rates of complete disconnection seem to achieve better seizure-free outcome following modified functional hemispherectomy.

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Po Ching Chen, Steven A. Messina, Eduardo Castillo, James Baumgartner, Joo Hee Seo, Holly Skinner, Elakkat D. Gireesh, and Ki Hyeong Lee

OBJECTIVE

Generalized-onset seizures are usually conceptualized as engaging bilaterally distributed networks with no clear focus. However, the authors previously reported a case series demonstrating that in some patients with generalized-onset seizures, focal seizure onset could be discovered after corpus callosotomy. The corpus callosum is considered to be a major pathway for seizure generalization in this group of patients. The authors hypothesized that, in patients with generalized-onset seizures, the structure of the corpus callosum could be different between patients who have lateralized seizures and those who have nonlateralized seizures after corpus callosotomy. The authors aimed to evaluate the structural difference through statistical analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scalars between these two groups of patients.

METHODS

Thirty-two patients diagnosed with generalized-onset motor seizures and without an MRI lesion were included in this study. Among them, 16 patients developed lateralized epileptic activities after corpus callosotomy, and the remaining 16 patients continued to have nonlateralized seizures after corpus callosotomy. Presurgical DTI studies were acquired to quantify the structural integrity of the corpus callosum.

RESULTS

The DTI analysis showed significant reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase in radial diffusivity (RD) in the body of the corpus callosum in the lateralized group compared with the nonlateralized group.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ findings indicate the existence of different configurations of bilateral epileptic networks in generalized epilepsy. Generalized seizures with focal onset relying on rapid spread through the corpus callosum might cause more structural damage related to demyelination in the corpus callosum, showing reduced FA and increased RD. This study suggests that presurgical DTI analysis of the corpus callosum might predict the seizure lateralization after corpus callosotomy.

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Elakkat D. Gireesh, Kihyeong Lee, Holly Skinner, Joohee Seo, Po-Ching Chen, Michael Westerveld, Richard D. Beegle, Eduardo Castillo, and James Baumgartner

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to assess the success rate and complications of stereo-electroencephalogra-phy (sEEG) and laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in the treatment of nonlesional refractory epilepsy in cingulate and insular cortex.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment response in 9 successive patients who underwent insular or cingulate LITT for nonlesional refractory epilepsy at their center between 2011 and 2019. Localization of seizures was based on inpatient video-EEG monitoring, neuropsychological testing, 3-T MRI, PET scan, magnetoencephalography scan, and/or ictal SPECT scan. Eight patients underwent sEEG, and 1 patient had implantation of both sEEG electrodes and subdural grids for localization of epileptogenic zones. LITT was performed in 5 insular cases (4 left and 1 right) and 3 cingulate cases (all left-sided). One patient also underwent both insular and cingulate LITT on the left side. All of the patients who underwent insular LITT as well as 2 of the 3 who underwent cingulate LITT were right-hand dominant. The patient who underwent insular plus cingulate LITT was also right-hand dominant.

RESULTS

Following LITT, 67% of the patients were seizure free (Engel class I) at follow-up (mean 1.35 years, range 0.6–2.8 years). All patients responded favorably to treatment (Engel class I–III). Two patients developed small intracranial hemorrhages during the sEEG implantation that did not require surgical management. One patient developed a large intracranial hemorrhage during an insular LITT procedure that did require surgical management. That patient experienced aphasia, incoordination, and hemiparesis, which resolved with inpatient rehabilitation. No permanent neurological deficits were noted in any of the patients at last follow-up. Neuropsychological status was stable in this cohort before and after LITT.

CONCLUSIONS

sEEG can be safely used to localize seizures originating from insular and cingulate cortex. LITT can successfully treat seizures arising from these deep-seated structures. The insula and cingulum should be evaluated more frequently for seizure onset zones.

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Ching-Chang Chen, Shao-Wei Chen, Po-Hsun Tu, Yin-Cheng Huang, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Shih-Tseng Lee, Tien-Hsing Chen, Chi-Tung Cheng, Shang-Yu Wang, and An-Hsun Chou

OBJECTIVE

Burr hole craniostomy is an effective and simple procedure for treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). However, the surgical outcomes and recurrence of CSDH in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) remain unknown.

METHODS

A nationwide population-based cohort study was retrospectively conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study included 29,163 patients who underwent first-time craniostomy for CSDH removal between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. In total, 1223 patients with LC and 2446 matched non-LC control patients were eligible for analysis. All-cause mortality, surgical complications, repeat craniostomy, extended craniotomy, and long-term medical costs were analyzed.

RESULTS

The in-hospital mortality rate (8.7% vs 3.1% for patients with LC and non-LC patients, respectively), frequency of hospital admission, length of ICU stay, number of blood transfusions, and medical expenditures of patients with LC who underwent craniostomy for CSDH were considerably higher than those of non-LC control patients. Patients with LC tended to require an extended craniotomy to remove subdural hematomas in the hospital or during long-term follow-up. The surgical outcome worsened with an increase in the severity of LC.

CONCLUSIONS

Even for simple procedures following minor head trauma, LC remains a serious comorbidity with a poor prognosis.

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Chang-Po Kuo, Li-Li Wen, Chun-Mei Chen, Billy Huh, Chen-Hwan Cherng, Chih-Shung Wong, Wen-Jinn Liaw, Chun-Chang Yeh, Bo-Feng Lin, and Ching-Tang Wu

Object

Baicalein has been shown to offer neuroprotection in the ischemic brain, but its effect in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unknown. The authors used a double-hemorrhage model to study the role of early baicalein treatment in SAH.

Methods

Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in male Wistar rats through a repeat injection of autologous blood at a 48-hour interval. Rats subjected or not subjected to SAH received a 30-mg/kg baicalein injection 3 hours after SAH and daily for 6 consecutive days, and results were compared with those obtained in vehicle-treated control rats. Mortality of the rats was recorded. Neurological outcome was assessed daily. Cerebrospinal fluid dialysates were collected and examined for glutamate concentrations. Cerebral vasospasm (CVS), brain water content, neuron variability, expression of glutamate transporter–1 (GLT-1), immunoreactivity of astrocyte, and level of malondialdehyde, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in brain tissues content were determined on post-SAH Day 7.

Results

Mortality rate, neuronal degeneration, brain water content, and CVS were decreased and neurological function improved in the baicalein-treated rats. Baicalein increased astrocyte activity and preserved GLT-1, which attenuated the glutamate surge after SAH. Baicalein also provided antioxidative stress by preserving activities of SOD and catalase and decreased malondialdehydelevel after SAH. The glutamate, body weight, neurological scores, and glial fibrillary acidic protein activity were significantly correlated. The CVS was correlated with neuronal degeneration, and GLT-1 was correlated with oxidative stress.

Conclusions

Early baicalein treatment attenuated CVS and limited neurological injury following SAH. These data may indicate clinical utility for baicalein as an adjunct therapy to reduce brain injury and improve patient outcomes.