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Luigi Albano, Lina Raffaella Barzaghi, and Pietro Mortini

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Luigi Albano, Lina Raffaella Barzaghi, and Pietro Mortini

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Nicola Boari, Alfio Spina, Lodoviga Giudice, Francesca Gorgoni, Michele Bailo, and Pietro Mortini

OBJECTIVE

Advantages of the fronto-orbitozygomatic (FOZ) approach have been reported extensively in the literature; nevertheless, restoration of normal anatomy and the esthetic impact of surgery are increasingly important issues for patients and neurosurgeons. The aim of this study was to analyze functional and cosmetic outcomes in a series of 169 patients with different pathologies who underwent surgery in which the FOZ approach was used.

METHODS

Between January 2000 and December 2014, 250 consecutive patients underwent surgery with an FOZ approach as the primary surgical treatment. Follow-up data were available for only 169 patients; 103 (60.9%) of these patients were female and 66 (39.1%) were male, and their ages ranged from 6 to 77 years (mean 46.9 years; SD 15.6 years). Mean follow-up time was 66 months (range 6–179 months; SD 49.5 months). Evaluation of clinical outcomes was performed with a focus on 4 main issues: surgical complications, functional outcome, cosmetic outcome, and patient satisfaction. The additional time needed to perform orbitotomy and orbital reconstruction was also evaluated.

RESULTS

The permanent postoperative complications included forehead hypesthesia (41.4%) and dysesthesia (15.3%), frontal muscle weakness (10.3%), exophthalmos (1.4%), enophthalmos (4.1%), diplopia (6.6%; 2% were related to surgical approach), and persistent periorbital and eyelid swelling (3%). Approximately 90% of the patients reported subjectively that surgery did not affect their quality of life or complained of only minor problems that did not influence their quality of life significantly. The mean time needed for orbitotomy and orbital reconstruction was approximately half an hour.

CONCLUSIONS

Comprehensive knowledge of the potential complications and overall clinical outcomes of the FOZ approach can be of great utility to neurosurgeons in balancing the well-known benefits of the approach with potential additional morbidities.

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Alfio Spina, Nicola Boari, and Pietro Mortini

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Alfio Spina, Nicola Boari, and Pietro Mortini

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Nicola Boari, Fabio Roberti, Federico Biglioli, Anthony J. Caputy, and Pietro Mortini

Object

The authors describe a modified Le Fort I maxillotomy with medial and posterior antrectomy and removal of the pterygoid plates, aimed at improving the lateral surgical exposure during open transmaxillary surgery for pathological conditions involving the clivus. A cadaveric microanatomical study was conducted to compare the planimetric exposures allowed by the transmaxillary transpterygoid (TMTP) approach and the standard Le Fort I maxillotomy (STM).

Methods

Six cadaveric specimens that had been fixed with glutaraldehyde and injected with latex were dissected to obtain morphometric measurements after both TMTP and STM approaches. The anatomical areas exposed by the surgical approaches were calculated using ImageJ 1.37a software.

Results

As expected, the TMTP approach allowed for a greater surgical exposure, with an incremental area exposed ranging from 4.9 to 7.6 cm2 (mean ± standard deviation 6.4 ± 1.2 cm2, 95% CI 5.4–7.4 cm2). The amount of additional anatomical area visualized, as recorded as a percentage increase after the TMTP approach when compared with the STM approach, ranged from 83 to 109% (mean 99%).

Conclusions

The lateral surgical exposure allowed by the STM approach is limited by the pterygoid plates. The TMTP approach significantly improves the exposure of the anatomical regions lateral to the clivus, allowing access to the pterygopalatine and medial infratemporal fossae. In comparison with the STM, the TMTP approach allows for a surgical exposure that is nearly double. The authors conclude that the TMTP approach provides a significant improvement in the surgical exposure of the lateral paraclival areas, when compared with the STM approach.

Open access

Lina R. Barzaghi, Edoardo Pompeo, Luigi Albano, Antonella Del Vecchio, and Pietro Mortini

BACKGROUND

Cluster-tic syndrome is a disorder characterized by the coexistence of symptoms related to both cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia. Etiopathogenesis is not yet well defined. Medical treatment, including drugs for both cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia, is the first therapeutic choice, whereas more invasive treatments are indicated in the case of pharmacological therapy failure or in the presence of drug side effects. To date, no randomized and/or large cohort trials describing Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for cluster-tic syndrome are available, probably due to the syndrome’s rarity.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with refractory cluster-tic syndrome who underwent GKRS with double target (the retrogasserian portion of the trigeminal nerve and the sphenopalatine ganglion). The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain and the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score before treatment were 7 (up to 10 during paroxysmal pain attacks) and V, respectively. At last follow-up, 24 months after GKRS, the patient had discontinued her pain medications and NRS and BNI pain scores were 1 and I, respectively. No trigeminal sensory disorders were reported.

LESSONS

The present case shows that GKRS, in selected cases, could be an effective treatment in patients with refractory cluster-tic syndrome.

Free access

Alberto Franzin, Pietro Panni, Giorgio Spatola, Antonella del Vecchio, Alberto L. Gallotti, Carmen R. Gigliotti, Andrea Cavalli, Carmine A. Donofrio, and Pietro Mortini

OBJECTIVE

There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs.

METHODS

Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm3. Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm3 (range 10.1–34.3 cm3). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18–25 Gy).

RESULTS

Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19–87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I–II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS

According to the results of this study, volume-staged GKRS is an effective and safe treatment strategy for large, complex, cerebral AVMs for which microsurgery or endovascular approaches could carry substantially higher risks to the patient. Radiation doses up to 20 Gy can be safely administered. The time interval between stages should be shorter than 11.7 months to increase the chance of obliteration. High nidal flow and a patient age younger than 44 years were factors associated with nidus obliteration and significant nidus reduction, respectively.

Full access

Nicola Boari, Filippo Gagliardi, Andrea Cavalli, Marco Gemma, Luca Ferrari, Paola Riva, and Pietro Mortini

OBJECTIVE

Skull base chordomas (SBCs) are rare dysembryogenetic invasive tumors with a variable tendency for recurrence. According to previous studies, the recurrence rate seems to be affected by both clinical variables and tumor biological features. The authors present the results of treatment of SBCs in a large series of patients and investigate the role of 1p36 chromosomal region loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as a prognostic factor.

METHODS

Between 1990 and 2011, 45 patients were treated for SBCs. The mean follow-up was 76 months (range 1–240 months). An LOH analysis was performed in 27 cases. Survival analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological parameters correlating with clinical outcome.

RESULTS

The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 67% and 57%, respectively. Five- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 58% and 44%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that extent of resection, adjuvant radiation therapy, and absence of rhinopharynx invasion were positive independent predictors of overall survival. The latter 2 variables and a younger patient age were positive independent predictors of progression-free survival. Twenty-one patients showed 1p36 LOH. All events of recurrence and death clustered in the group of patients with 1p36 LOH; however, this biological marker was not statistically significant on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Resection is the treatment of choice in primary and recurrent SBC. Patient age, rhinopharynx invasion at diagnosis, extent of tumor removal, and postoperative radiation therapy influence SBC prognosis. Genetic analysis, even while showing interesting results, did not reveal 1p36 LOH as an independent predictor of clinical outcome.