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Lillian B. Boettcher, Phillip A. Bonney, Adam D. Smitherman, and Michael E. Sughrue

Of the multitude of medical and psychiatric conditions ascribed to Hitler both in his lifetime and since his suicide in April 1945, few are more substantiated than parkinsonism. While the timeline of the development of this condition, as well as its etiology, are debated, there is clear evidence for classic manifestations of the disease, most prominently a resting tremor but also stooped posture, bradykinesia, micrographia, and masked facial expressions, with progression steadily seen over his final years. Though ultimately speculation, some have suggested that Hitler suffered from progressive cognitive and mood disturbances, possibly due to parkinsonism, that affected the course of events in the war. Here, the authors discuss Hitler’s parkinsonism in the context of the Third Reich and its eventual destruction, maintaining that ultimately his disease had little effect on the end result.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Tyson Sheean, Phillip A. Bonney, Adrian J. Maurer, and Charles Teo

OBJECT

The relative benefit of repeat surgery for recurrent glioblastoma is unclear, in part due to the very heterogeneous nature of the patient population and the effect of clinician philosophy on the duration and aggressiveness of treatment. The authors sought to investigate the role of time to last recurrence on patient outcomes following aggressive repeat surgery for recurrent glioblastoma.

METHODS

The authors present outcomes in 104 patients undergoing repeat surgery for focally recurrent glioblastoma with at least 95% resection and adjuvant treatment at most recent prior surgery. In addition to common variables, they provide data regarding the period of progression-free survival (PFS) following an aggressive lesionectomy for focally recurrent primary glioblastoma (T2) and the time the tumor took to recur since the previous surgery (T1). They term the ratio T1/T2 the relative aggressivity index (RAI).

RESULTS

The median PFS was 7.8 months, 6.0 months, and 4.8 months following the second, third, and fourth–sixth craniotomies, respectively. Importantly, there was a wide range of outcomes, with time to postoperative recurrence ranging from 1 to 24 months in this group. Analysis showed no meaningful relationship between T1 and T2, meaning that previous PFS is entirely unable to predict the PFS that another surgery will provide the patient.

CONCLUSIONS

Repeat surgery for glioblastoma is beneficial in many cases, however this is hard to predict preoperatively. Often, surgery can provide the patient with a good period of disease freedom, but this is variable and in general it is not possible to reliably predict who these patients are.

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Phillip A. Bonney, Frank J. Attenello, and William J. Mack

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Phillip A. Bonney, Adrian J. Maurer, Ahmed A. Cheema, Quyen Duong, Chad A. Glenn, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Julie A. Stoner, and Timothy B. Mapstone

OBJECT

The coexistence of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and ventral brainstem compression (VBSC) has been well documented, but the change in VBSC after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) has undergone little investigation. In this study the authors evaluated VBSC in patients with CM-I and determined the change in VBSC after PFD, correlating changes in VBSC with clinical status and the need for further intervention.

METHODS

Patients who underwent PFD for CM-I by the senior author from November 2005 to January 2013 with complete radiological records were included in the analysis. The following data were obtained: objective measure of VBSC (pB–C2 distance); relationship of odontoid to Chamberlain’s, McGregor’s, McRae’s, and Wackenheim’s lines; clival length; foramen magnum diameter; and basal angle. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-tests and a mixed-effects ANOVA model.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 10.0 years. There was a small but statistically significant increase in pB–C2 postoperatively (0.5 mm, p < 0.0001, mixed-effects ANOVA). Eleven patients had postoperative pB–C2 values greater than 9 mm. The mean distance from the odontoid tip to Wackenheim’s line did not change after PFD, signifying postoperative occipitocervical stability. No patients underwent transoral odontoidectomy or occipitocervical fusion. No patients experienced clinical deterioration after PFD.

CONCLUSIONS

The increase in pB–C2 in patients undergoing PFD may occur as a result of releasing the posterior vector on the ventral dura, allowing it to relax posteriorly. This increase appears to be well-tolerated, and a postoperative pB–C2 measurement of more than 9 mm in light of stable craniocervical metrics and a nonworsened clinical examination does not warrant further intervention.

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Justin Seltzer, Michelle A. Wedemeyer, Phillip A. Bonney, John D. Carmichael, Martin Weiss, and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Incidental pituitary adenomas (IPAs) are commonly discovered during cranial imaging evaluations obtained for unrelated indications. The optimal management of IPA remains controversial. The authors investigated the outcomes and safety of the surgical treatment of IPAs at their institution.

METHODS

Clinical outcome data for 1692 patients surgically treated for pituitary adenomas at the Keck Medical Center of USC/USC Pituitary Center over a 17-year period (1999–2016) were reviewed to identify all cases with surgically managed IPAs. Clinical characteristics reviewed in this retrospective analysis included patient demographics, endocrine laboratory data, visual field examinations, and MRI results. Intraoperative data reviewed included requirement for CSF leak repair, surgical complications, and estimated extent of resection. Postoperative data collected included pathology results, length of stay, postoperative complications, endocrine outcomes, readmission rates, and long-term outcomes, including extent of resection noted on postoperative imaging studies and tumor progression and/or recurrence.

RESULTS

Fifty-two patients (3.1% of all cases) underwent transsphenoidal surgery for IPA. The median age at surgery was 61 years (range 31–86 years). The most common reasons for neuroimaging included trauma (19%), stroke/transient ischemic attack (15%), and sinonasal disease (15%). Visual field deficits were present in 15% of bedside examinations, and among the 22 patients sent for formal testing, 54.5% were noted to have deficits. Preoperative endocrine function was normal in 69% of patients, which includes 3 patients (5.8%) having isolated hyperprolactinemia consistent with a stalk effect without other hormonal dysfunction. The average maximal tumor diameter was 20.9 mm (8–50 mm; data available in 35 patients). The most common primary indication for surgery was compression of the chiasm or vision loss (52%); other major considerations included tumor growth, a young patient age, and identified endocrine abnormalities. Intraoperative CSF leak repair was performed in 56% of patients, and 1 patient (2%) developed postoperative CSF rhinorrhea treated with lumbar drainage. The median hospital stay was 2 days. There were no deaths or major complications. Three patients (5.8%) developed transient diabetes insipidus. Over a mean follow-up of 61 months, 4 patients (50.0%) reported improved headaches and 6 (54.5%) reported improvement in their visual deficits. Four patients (25%) had improved endocrine function, including one with resumption of menstruation and another with remission of acromegaly. One patient (2.4%) reported new postoperative headache, and none experienced worsened vision. Four patients (10.5%) developed new single-axis hypopituitarism and 1 (2.6%) developed new panhypopituitarism. The overall recurrence/progression rate on neuroimaging was 9.6% at a mean of 80 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Transsphenoidal resection of IPAs, when appropriate, can be performed safely at experienced treatment centers. Incidental pituitary adenomas should be evaluated and treated as indicated, especially in younger patients at risk for endocrine or visual dysfunction.

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Phillip A. Bonney and Michael E. Sughrue

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Joshua D. Burks, Andrew K. Conner, Robert G. Briggs, Chad A. Glenn, Phillip A. Bonney, Ahmed A. Cheema, Sixia Chen, Naina L. Gross, and Timothy B. Mapstone

OBJECTIVE

Experience has led us to suspect an association between shunt malfunction and recent abdominal surgery, yet information about this potential relationship has not been explored in the literature. The authors compared shunt survival in patients who underwent abdominal surgery to shunt survival in our general pediatric shunt population to determine whether such a relationship exists.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all cases in which pediatric patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations at their institution during a 7-year period. Survival time in shunt operations that followed abdominal surgery was compared with survival time of shunt operations in patients with no history of abdominal surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with failure.

RESULTS

A total of 141 patients who underwent 468 shunt operations during the period of study were included; 107 of these 141 patients had no history of abdominal surgery and 34 had undergone a shunt operation after abdominal surgery. Shunt surgery performed more than 2 weeks after abdominal surgery was not associated with time to shunt failure (p = 0.86). Shunt surgery performed within 2 weeks after abdominal surgery was associated with time to failure (adjusted HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3–9.6).

CONCLUSIONS

Undergoing shunt surgery shortly after abdominal surgery appears to be associated with shorter shunt survival. When possible, some patients may benefit from shunt placement utilizing alternative termini.

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Joshua D. Burks, Andrew K. Conner, Robert G. Briggs, Phillip A. Bonney, Adam D. Smitherman, Cordell M. Baker, Chad A. Glenn, Cameron A. Ghafil, Dillon P. Pryor, Kyle P. O’Connor, and Bradley N. Bohnstedt

OBJECTIVE

A shifting emphasis on efficient utilization of hospital resources has been seen in recent years. However, reduced screening for blunt vertebral artery injury (BVAI) may result in missed diagnoses if risk factors are not fully understood. The authors examined the records of blunt trauma patients with fractures near the craniocervical junction who underwent CTA at a single institution to better understand the risk of BVAI imposed by occipital condyle fractures (OCFs).

METHODS

The authors began with a query of their prospectively collected trauma registry to identify patients who had been screened for BVAI using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. Grade and segment were recorded in instances of BVAI. Locations of fractures were classified into 3 groups: 1) OCFs, 2) C1 (atlas) fractures, and 3) fractures of the C2–6 vertebrae. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify any fracture types associated with BVAI.

RESULTS

During a 6-year period, 719 patients underwent head and neck CTA following blunt trauma. Of these patients, 147 (20%) had OCF. BVAI occurred in 2 of 43 patients with type I OCF, 1 of 42 with type II OCF, and in 9 of 62 with type III OCF (p = 0.12). Type III OCF was an independent risk factor for BVAI in multivariate modeling (OR 2.29 [95% CI 1.04–5.04]), as were fractures of C1–6 (OR 5.51 [95% CI 2.57–11.83]). Injury to the V4 segment was associated with type III OCF (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors found an association between type III OCF and BVAI. While further study may be necessary to elucidate the mechanism of injury in these cases, this association suggests that thorough cerebrovascular evaluation is warranted in patients with type III OCF.

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Jacob B. Archer, Hai Sun, Phillip A. Bonney, Yan Daniel Zhao, Jared C. Hiebert, Jose A. Sanclement, Andrew S. Little, Michael E. Sughrue, Nicholas Theodore, Jeffrey James, and Sam Safavi-Abbasi

OBJECT

This article introduces a classification scheme for extensive traumatic anterior skull base fracture to help stratify surgical treatment options. The authors describe their multilayer repair technique for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak resulting from extensive anterior skull base fracture using a combination of laterally pediculated temporalis fascial-pericranial, nasoseptal-pericranial, and anterior pericranial flaps.

METHODS

Retrospective chart review identified patients treated surgically between January 2004 and May 2014 for anterior skull base fractures with CSF fistulas. All patients were treated with bifrontal craniotomy and received pedicled tissue flaps. Cases were classified according to the extent of fracture: Class I (frontal bone/sinus involvement only); Class II (extent of involvement to ethmoid cribriform plate); and Class III (extent of involvement to sphenoid bone/sinus). Surgical repair techniques were tailored to the types of fractures. Patients were assessed for CSF leak at follow-up. The Fisher exact test was applied to investigate whether the repair techniques were associated with persistent postoperative CSF leak.

RESULTS

Forty-three patients were identified in this series. Thirty-seven (86%) were male. The patients’ mean age was 33 years (range 11–79 years). The mean overall length of follow-up was 14 months (range 5–45 months). Six fractures were classified as Class I, 8 as Class II, and 29 as Class III. The anterior pericranial flap alone was used in 33 patients (77%). Multiple flaps were used in 10 patients (3 salvage) (28%)—1 with Class II and 9 with Class III fractures. Five (17%) of the 30 patients with Class II or III fractures who received only a single anterior pericranial flap had persistent CSF leak (p < 0.31). No CSF leak was found in patients who received multiple flaps. Although postoperative CSF leak occurred only in high-grade fractures with single anterior flap repair, this finding was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Extensive anterior skull base fractures often require aggressive treatment to provide the greatest long-term functional and cosmetic benefits. Several vascularized tissue flaps can be used, either alone or in combination. Vascularized flaps are an ideal substrate for cranial base repair. Dual and triple flap techniques that combine the use of various anterior, lateral, and nasoseptal flaps allow for a comprehensive arsenal in multilayered skull base repair and salvage therapy for extensive and severe fractures.

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Andrew K. Conner, Joshua D. Burks, Cordell M. Baker, Adam D. Smitherman, Dillon P. Pryor, Chad A. Glenn, Robert G. Briggs, Phillip A. Bonney, and Michael E. Sughrue

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to describe a method of resecting temporal gliomas through a keyhole lobectomy and to share the results of using this technique.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained in all patients in whom the senior author performed resection of temporal gliomas between 2012 and 2015. The authors describe their technique for resecting dominant and nondominant gliomas, using both awake and asleep keyhole craniotomy techniques.

RESULTS

Fifty-two patients were included in the study. Twenty-six patients (50%) had not received prior surgery. Seventeen patients (33%) were diagnosed with WHO Grade II/III tumors, and 35 patients (67%) were diagnosed with a glioblastoma. Thirty tumors were left sided (58%). Thirty procedures (58%) were performed while the patient was awake. The median extent of resection was 95%, and at least 90% of the tumor was resected in 35 cases (67%). Five of 49 patients (10%) with clinical follow-up experienced permanent deficits, including 3 patients (6%) with hydrocephalus requiring placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 patients (4%) with weakness. Three patients experienced early postoperative anomia, but no patients had a new speech deficit at clinical follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors provide their experience using a keyhole lobectomy for resecting temporal gliomas. Their data demonstrate the feasibility of using less invasive techniques to safely and aggressively treat these tumors.