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Giuseppe Lanzino and Philipp Taussky

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Philipp Taussky and Daniel W. Fults

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Editorial

Cardiac standstill

Giuseppe Lanzino and Philipp Taussky

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Nam K. Yoon, Jonathan P. Scoville and Philipp Taussky

Vein of Galen malformations are congenital high-flow vascular malformations that often present with heart failure, hydrocephalus, developmental delay, and intracranial hemorrhage. Because open surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality, endovascular embolization is increasingly becoming the preferred method of intervention. However, embolization of these lesions can be difficult because of their high-flow nature. The use of adenosine-induced cardiac standstill for treatment of vein of Galen malformations has not been previously described in neonates. The authors describe 3 treatments in 2 patients that demonstrate that the use of adenosine is well tolerated and allows safe transarterial embolization of high-flow vein of Galen malformations in the pediatric population.

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Marcus D. Mazur, Aaron Cutler, William T. Couldwell and Philipp Taussky

Meningiomas that invade the transverse or sigmoid sinuses are uncommon tumors that are challenging to treat surgically. Although the risk of recurrence is associated with the extent of resection, complete removal of meningiomas in these locations must be balanced with avoidance of venous outflow obstruction, which could cause venous infarction and significant neurological consequences. When a meningioma occludes a venous sinus completely, gross-total resection of the intravascular portion is commonly performed. When the tumor invades but does not completely obliterate a major venous sinus, however, opinions differ on whether to accept a subtotal resection or to open the sinus, perform a complete resection, and reconstruct the venous outflow tract. In this paper, the authors review the different strategies used to treat these lesions and provide illustrative case examples.

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Spencer Twitchell, Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, William T. Couldwell and Philipp Taussky

The term “radiation vasculopathy” defines a heterogeneous and poorly defined complex of vessel injury due to radiation. Radiation vasculopathy remains underrecognized and poorly treated with respect to head and neck radiotherapy. Distinct injury patterns to small (≤ 100-μm), medium (> 100-μm), and large (> 500-μm) vessels can occur, resulting in carotid stenosis, intracranial stenosis, and vascular anomalies (e.g., cavernous malformations, aneurysms). Because of the lack of clinical evidence and guidelines, treatment plans involve medical management, carotid endarterectomy, and carotid artery stenting and are developed on a patient-by-patient basis. In this review, the authors discuss the current pathophysiology, imaging, clinical impact, and potential treatment strategies of radiation vasculopathy with clinical pertinence to practicing neurosurgeons and neurologists. A review of 4 patients with prior head and neck tumors in whom delayed radiation vasculopathy developed after radiotherapy demonstrates the application of various treatment options in a case-by-case manner. Earlier recognition of radiation vasculopathy disease patterns may enable earlier initiation of treatment and monitoring for complications. Standardized terminology and treatments may assist with improving clinical outcomes.

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Vijay M. Ravindra, Michael Karsy, Richard H. Schmidt, Philipp Taussky, Min S. Park and Robert J. Bollo

The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5–mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4–mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic.

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Philipp Taussky, Ricky Kalra, Jeroen Coppens, Jahan Mohebali, Randy Jensen and William T. Couldwell

Object

Stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of residual or recurrent benign tumors of the skull base and cavernous sinus. A major risk associated with radiosurgical or radiotherapy treatment of residual or recurrent tumors adjacent to normal functional pituitary gland is radiation of the pituitary, which frequently leads to the development of hypopituitarism. The authors have used a technique of pituitary transposition to reduce the radiation dose to the normal pituitary gland in cases of planned radiosurgical treatment of residual tumor within the cavernous sinus. Here, the authors analyze the long-term endocrinological outcomes in patients with residual and recurrent tumors who undergo hypophysopexy and adjuvant radiosurgical or conformal fractionated radiotherapy treatment.

Methods

Pituitary transposition involves placement of a fat graft between the normal pituitary gland and residual tumor in the cavernous sinus. A sellar exploration for tumor resection is performed, the pituitary gland is transposed from the region of the cavernous sinus, and the graft is interposed between the pituitary gland and the residual tumor. The residual tumor may then be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery or conformal fractionated radiation therapy. The authors evaluated endocrinological outcome, safety of the procedure, and postoperative complications in patients who underwent this procedure during a 7-year period.

Results

Hypophysopexy has been used in 34 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (19), functional pituitary adenomas (8), chordomas (2), meningiomas (2), chondrosarcoma (1), hemangiopericytoma (1), or hemangioma (1) involving the sella and cavernous sinus. Follow-up (radiographic and endocrinological) has been performed yearly in all patients. Two patients experienced postoperative endocrine deficits before radiosurgery (1 transient), but none of the patients developed new hypopituitarism during the median 4-year follow-up (range 1–8 years) after radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

Conclusions

The increased distance between the normal pituitary gland and the residual tumor facilitates treatment of the tumor with radiosurgery or radiotherapy and effectively reduces the incidence of radiation injury to the normal pituitary gland when compared with historical controls.

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Nam K. Yoon, Al-Wala Awad, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Philipp Taussky and Min S. Park

Atherosclerotic disease of the cerebral vasculature is a major cause of stroke worldwide. Atherosclerosis that is refractory to best medical management may require revascularization. In these instances, endovascular treatment provides a popular and safe alternative to open surgical techniques. The authors provide an overview of stent technology in the treatment of ischemic stroke, discussing the major studies evaluating stenting for extracranial carotid artery, vertebral artery, and intracranial atherosclerotic disease. The authors describe the commonly used stents with respect to their individual characteristics and technical limitations. Current and future developments in stent technology are also discussed, with areas for further innovation and clinical research.

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Adam S. Arthur, Philipp Taussky, Min S. Park, Michael F. Stiefel and Robert H. Rosenwasser