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Open access

Michael J. Link, Isaac Yang, Fred G. Barker II, Amir Samii, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

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Editorial

Endoscopy versus MR imaging

John A. Jane Jr. and Edward R. Laws Jr.

Free access

Stephen T. Magill, Jacob S. Young, Ricky Chae, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Prior studies have investigated preoperative risk factors for meningioma; however, no association has been shown between meningioma tumor size and tumor grade. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and grade in a large single-center study of patients undergoing meningioma resection.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing meningioma resection at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1985 and 2015 was performed. Patients with incomplete information, spinal meningiomas, multiple meningiomas, or WHO grade III meningiomas were excluded. The largest tumor dimension was used as a surrogate for tumor size. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between tumor grade and tumor size. A recursive partitioning analysis was performed to identify groups at higher risk for atypical (WHO grade II) meningioma.

RESULTS

Of the 1113 patients identified, 905 (81%) had a WHO grade I tumor and in 208 (19%) the tumors were WHO grade II. The median largest tumor dimension was 3.6 cm (range 0.2–13 cm). Tumors were distributed as follows: skull base (n = 573, 51%), convexity/falx/parasagittal (n = 431, 39%), and other (n = 109, 10%). On univariate regression, larger tumor size (p < 0.001), convexity/falx/parasagittal location (p < 0.001), and male sex (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of WHO grade II pathology. After controlling for interactions, multivariate regression found male sex (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25–2.43), size 3–6 cm (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.08–2.66), size > 6 cm (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.53–5.94), and convexity/falx/parasagittal location (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.19–2.82) to be significantly associated with WHO grade II. Recursive partitioning analysis identified male patients with tumors > 3 cm as a high-risk group (32%) for WHO grade II meningioma.

CONCLUSIONS

Larger tumor size is associated with a greater likelihood of a meningioma being WHO grade II, independent of tumor location and male sex, which are known risk factors.

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Philip A. Starr, Chadwick W. Christine, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Nadja Lindsey, Deborah Byrd, Anthony Mosley, and William J. Marks Jr.

Object. Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a procedure that is rapidly gaining acceptance for the treatment of symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), but there are few detailed descriptions of the surgical procedure itself. The authors present the technical approach used to implant 76 stimulators into the STNs of patients with PD and the lead locations, which were verified on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images.

Methods. Implantation procedures were performed with the aid of stereotactic MR imaging, microelectrode recording (MER) in the region of the stereotactic target to define the motor area of the STN, and intraoperative test stimulation to assess the thresholds for stimulation-induced adverse effects. All patients underwent postoperative MR imaging, which was performed using volumetric gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast—spin echo techniques, computational reformatting of the MR image into standard anatomical planes, and quantitative measurements of lead location with respect to the midcommissural point and the red nucleus. Lead locations were statistically correlated with physiological data obtained during MER and intraoperative test stimulation.

Conclusions. The authors' approach to implantation of DBS leads into the STN was associated with consistent lead placement in the dorsolateral STN, a low rate of morbidity, efficient use of operating room time, and robust improvement in motor function. The mean coordinates of the middle of the electrode array, measured on postoperative MR images, were 11.6 mm lateral, 2.9 mm posterior, and 4.7 mm inferior to the midcommissural point, and 6.5 mm lateral and 3.5 mm anterior to the center of the red nucleus. Voltage thresholds for several types of stimulation-induced adverse effects were predictive of lead location. Technical nuances of the surgery are described in detail.

Open access

Ramin A. Morshed, Alexander F. Haddad, Kunal P. Raygor, Mary Jue Xu, Charles J. Limb, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

Intravestibular schwannomas are rare tumors within the intralabyrinthine region and involve different management considerations compared to more common vestibular schwannomas. In this report, the authors review a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with hearing loss and vestibular symptoms and was found to have a left intravestibular schwannoma. Given her debilitating vestibular symptoms, she underwent microsurgical resection. In this video, the authors review the relevant anatomy, surgical technique, and management considerations in these patients.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2187

Free access

Stephen T. Magill, Minh P. Nguyen, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Convexity meningiomas are commonly managed with resection. Motor outcomes and predictors of new deficits after surgery are poorly studied. The objective of this study was to determine whether postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was associated with neurological deficits after convexity meningioma resection and to identify the risk factors for postoperative DWI restriction.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who had undergone convexity meningioma resection from 2014 to 2018 was performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with postoperative neurological deficits and a DWI signal. The amount of postoperative DWI signal was measured and was correlated with low apparent diffusion coefficient maps to confirm ischemic injury.

RESULTS

The authors identified 122 patients who had undergone a total of 125 operations for convexity meningiomas. The median age at surgery was 57 years, and 70% of the patients were female. The median follow-up was 26 months. The WHO grade was I in 62% of cases, II in 36%, and III in 2%. The most common preoperative deficits were seizures (24%), extremity weakness/paralysis (16%), cognitive/language/memory impairment (16%), and focal neurological deficit (16%). Following resection, 89% of cases had no residual deficit. Postoperative DWI showed punctate or no diffusion restriction in 78% of cases and restriction > 1 cm in 22% of cases. An immediate postoperative neurological deficit was present in 14 patients (11%), but only 8 patients (7%) had a deficit at 3 months postoperatively. Univariate analysis identified DWI signal > 1 cm (p < 0.0001), tumor diameter (p < 0.0001), preoperative motor deficit (p = 0.0043), older age (p = 0.0113), and preoperative embolization (p = 0.0171) as risk factors for an immediate postoperative deficit, whereas DWI signal > 1 cm (p < 0.0001), tumor size (p < 0.0001), and older age (p = 0.0181) were risk factors for deficits lasting more than 3 months postoperatively. Multivariate analysis revealed a DWI signal > 1 cm to be the only significant risk factor for deficits at 3 months postoperatively (OR 32.42, 95% CI 3.3–320.1, p = 0.0002). Further, estimated blood loss (OR 1.4 per 100 ml increase, 95% CI 1.1–1.7, p < 0.0001), older age (OR 1.1 per year older, 95% CI 1.0–1.1, p = 0.0009), middle third location in the sagittal plane (OR 16.9, 95% CI 1.3–216.9, p = 0.0026), and preoperative peritumoral edema (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.2–17.7, p = 0.0249) were significantly associated with a postoperative DWI signal > 1 cm.

CONCLUSIONS

A DWI signal > 1 cm is significantly associated with postoperative neurological deficits, both immediate and long-lasting. Greater estimated blood loss, older age, tumor location over the motor strip, and preoperative peritumoral edema increase the risk of having a postoperative DWI signal > 1 cm, reflective of perilesional ischemia. Most immediate postoperative deficits will improve over time. These data are valuable when preoperatively communicating with patients about the risks of surgery and when postoperatively discussing prognosis after a deficit occurs.

Free access

Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Andrew J. Ringer, Christopher M. McPherson, Ronald E. Warnick, Charles Kuntz IV, Mario Zuccarello, and John M. Tew Jr.

Object

Health care reform debate includes discussions regarding outcomes of surgical interventions. Yet quality of medical care, when judged as a health outcome, is difficult to define because of impediments affecting accuracy in data collection, analysis, and reporting. In this prospective study, the authors report the outcomes for neurosurgical treatment based on point-of-care interactions recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR).

Methods

The authors' neurosurgery practice collected outcome data for 19 physicians and ancillary personnel using the EMR. Data were analyzed for 5361 consecutive surgical cases, either elective or emergency procedures, performed during 2009 at multiple hospitals, offices, and an ambulatory spine surgery center. Main outcomes included complications, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition for all patients and for certain frequently performed procedures. Physicians, nurses, and other medical staff used validated scales to record the hospital LOS, complications, disposition at discharge, and return to work.

Results

Of the 5361 surgical procedures performed, two-thirds were spinal procedures and one-third were cranial procedures. Organization-wide compliance with reporting rates of major complications improved throughout the year, from 80.7% in the first quarter to 90.3% in the fourth quarter. Auditing showed that rates of unreported complications decreased from 11% in the first quarter to 4% in the fourth quarter. Complication data were available for 4593 procedures (85.7%); of these, no complications were reported in 4367 (95.1%). Discharge dispositions reported were home in 86.2%, rehabilitation center in 8.9%, and nursing home in 2.5%. Major complications included culture-proven infection in 0.61%, CSF leak in 0.89%, reoperation within the same hospitalization in 0.38%, and new neurological deficits in 0.77%. For the commonly performed procedures, the median hospital LOS was 3 days for craniotomy for aneurysm or intraaxial tumor and less than 1 day for angiogram, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion, or lumbar discectomy.

Conclusions

With prospectively collected outcome data for more than 5000 surgeries, the authors achieved their primary end point of institution-wide compliance and data accuracy. Components of this process included staged implementation with physician pilot studies and oversight, nurse participation, point-of-service data capture, EMR form modification, data auditing, and confidential surgeon reports.

Full access

William C. Chen, Stephen T. Magill, Ashley Wu, Harish N. Vasudevan, Olivier Morin, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Arie Perry, Michael W. McDermott, Penny K. Sneed, Steve E. Braunstein, and David R. Raleigh

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on local recurrence and overall survival in patients undergoing primary resection of atypical meningioma, and to identify predictive factors to inform patient selection for adjuvant RT.

METHODS

One hundred eighty-two patients who underwent primary resection of atypical meningioma at a single institution between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively identified. Patient, meningioma, and treatment data were extracted from the medical record and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, multivariate analysis (MVA) Cox proportional hazards models with relative risk (RR), and recursive partitioning analysis.

RESULTS

The median patient age and imaging follow-up were 57 years (interquartile range [IQR] 45–67 years) and 4.4 years (IQR 1.8–7.5 years), respectively. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 114 cases (63%), and 42 patients (23%) received adjuvant RT. On MVA, prognostic factors for death from any cause included GTR (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1–0.9, p = 0.02) and MIB1 labeling index (LI) ≤ 7% (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1–0.9, p = 0.04). Prognostic factors on MVA for local progression included GTR (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.5, p = 0.002), adjuvant RT (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.4, p < 0.001), MIB1 LI ≤ 7% (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.5, p < 0.001), and a remote history of prior cranial RT (RR 5.7, 95% CI 1.3–18.8, p = 0.03). After GTR, adjuvant RT (0 of 10 meningiomas recurred, p = 0.01) and MIB1 LI ≤ 7% (RR 0.1, 95% CI 0.003–0.3, p < 0.001) were predictive for local progression on MVA. After GTR, 2.2% of meningiomas with MIB1 LI ≤ 7% recurred (1 of 45), compared with 38% with MIB1 LI > 7% (13 of 34; p < 0.001). Recursive partitioning analysis confirmed the existence of a cohort of patients at high risk of local progression after GTR without adjuvant RT, with MIB1 LI > 7%, and evidence of brain or bone invasion. After subtotal resection, adjuvant RT (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04–0.7, p = 0.009) and ≤ 5 mitoses per 10 hpf (RR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03–0.4, p = 0.002) were predictive on MVA for local progression.

CONCLUSIONS

Adjuvant RT improves local control of atypical meningioma irrespective of extent of resection. Although independent validation is required, the authors’ results suggest that MIB1 LI, the number of mitoses per 10 hpf, and brain or bone invasion may be useful guides to the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from adjuvant RT after resection of atypical meningioma.

Restricted access

Robert C. Osorio, Matheus P. Pereira, Rushikesh S. Joshi, Kevin C. Donohue, Patricia Sneed, Steve Braunstein, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Ivan H. El-Sayed, José Gurrola II, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis S. Blevins Jr., and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Clinical presentations and outcomes of nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) resections can vary widely, and very little prior research has analyzed this variance through a socioeconomic lens. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic status (SES) influences NFPA presentations and postoperative outcomes, as these associations could aid physicians in understanding case prognoses and complications.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 225 NFPA resections from 2012 to 2019 at their institution. Race, ethnicity, insurance status, estimated income, and having a primary care provider (PCP) were collected as 5 markers of SES. These markers were correlated with presenting tumor burden, presenting symptoms, surgical outcomes, and long-term clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

All 5 examined SES markers influenced variance in patient presentation or outcome. Insurance status’s effects on patient presentations disappeared when examining only patients with PCPs. Having a PCP was associated with significantly smaller tumor size at diagnosis (effect size = 0.404, p < 0.0001). After surgery, patients with PCPs had shorter postoperative hospital lengths of stay (p = 0.043) and lower rates of readmission within 30 days of discharge (OR 0.256, p = 0.047). Despite continuing follow-up for longer durations (p = 0.0004), patients with PCPs also had lower rates of tumor recurrence (p < 0.0001). Higher estimated income was similarly associated with longer follow-up (p = 0.002) and lower rates of tumor recurrence (p = 0.013). Among patients with PCPs, income was not associated with recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS

This study found that while all 5 variables (race, ethnicity, insurance, PCP status, and estimated income) affected NFPA presentations and outcomes, having a PCP was the single most important of these socioeconomic factors, impacting hospital lengths of stay, readmission rates, follow-up adherence, and tumor recurrence. Having a PCP even protected low-income patients from experiencing increased rates of tumor recurrence. These protective findings suggest that addressing socioeconomic disparities may lead to better NFPA presentations and outcomes.

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Ramin A. Morshed, Nicole T. Jiam, Elaina J. Wang, Stephen T. Magill, Renata M. Knoll, Elliott D. Kozin, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Steven W. Cheung, Jeffrey D. Sharon, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Ménière’s disease is an inner ear disorder classically characterized by fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness accompanied by episodic vertigo. While the pathogenesis of Ménière’s remains under debate, histopathological analyses implicate endolymphatic sac dysfunction with inner ear fluid homeostatic dysregulation. Little is known about whether external impingement of the endolymphatic sac by tumors may present with Ménière’s-like symptoms. The authors present a case series of 7 patients with posterior fossa meningiomas that involved the endolymphatic sac and new onset of Ménière’s-like symptoms and review the literature on this rare clinical entity.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients undergoing resection of a posterior petrous meningioma was performed at the authors’ institution. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years; patients presenting with Ménière’s-like symptoms, including episodic vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss; and tumor location overlying the endolymphatic sac.

RESULTS

There were 7 cases of posterior petrous face meningiomas involving the vestibular aperture presenting with Ménière’s-like symptoms. Imaging and intraoperative examination confirmed no cranial nerve VIII compression or labyrinthine artery involvement accounting for audiovestibular symptoms. Of the 7 patients in the series, 6 experienced significant improvement or resolution of their vertigo, and all 7 had improvement or resolution of their tinnitus after resection. Of the 5 patients who had preoperative hearing loss, 2 experienced improvement or resolution of their ipsilateral preoperative hearing deficit, whereas the other 3 had unchanged hearing loss compared to preoperative evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS

Petrous face meningiomas overlying the endolymphatic sac can present with a Ménière’s syndrome. Early recognition and microsurgical excision of these tumors is critical for resolution of most symptoms and stabilization of hearing loss.