Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 25 items for

  • Author or Editor: Philip Starr x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Philip A. Starr and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

The authors review the literature on the treatment of spinal deformity in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and formulate a treatment algorithm.

Methods

The authors provide representative cases of patients with PD and spinal deformity who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) or spinal surgery.

Results

In patients with PD and spinal deformity who undergo spinal surgery there is a high rate of acute and delayed complications. Patients who undergo DBS, while having significantly fewer complications, often do not regain sagittal balance.

Conclusions

Cases involving PD and camptocormia have a high rate of complications when spinal surgery is performed. The authors prefer to offer spinal surgery only to patients with coexisting spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy or myelopathy. Patients with PD and camptocormia without spinal stenosis may be considered for DBS, but the results are mixed.

Restricted access

Ellen L. Air, Jill L. Ostrem, Terence D. Sanger and Philip A. Starr

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established technique for the treatment of several movement disorders in adults. However, the technical approach, complications, and results of DBS in children have not been well documented.

Methods

A database of DBS implantations performed at a single institution, prospectively established in 1998, was reviewed for patients who received DBS prior to the age of 18. Diagnoses, surgical technique, and complications were noted. Outcomes were assessed using standard rating scales of neurological function.

Results

Of 815 patients undergoing DBS implantation over a 12-year period, 31 were children (mean age at surgery 13.2 years old, range 4–17 years old). Diagnoses included the following: DYT1 primary dystonia (autosomal dominant, Tor1AΔGAG mutation, 10 cases), non-DYT1 primary dystonia (3 cases), secondary dystonia (11 cases), neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, 3 cases), levodopa-responsive parkinsonism (2 cases), Lesch-Nyhan disease (1 case), and glutaric aciduria Type 1 (1 case). Six children ages 15–17 years old underwent awake microelectrode-guided surgery. For 25 children operated under general anesthesia, the surgical technique evolved from microelectrode-guided surgery to image-guided surgeries using real-time intraoperative MR imaging or CT for lead location confirmation. Complications included 5 hardware infections, all in children younger than 10 years old. At 1 year after implantation, patients with DYT1 dystonia had a mean improvement in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale movement subscore of 75%, while those with secondary dystonia had only small improvements. Outcomes in the 3 children with NBIA were disappointing.

Conclusions

Results of DBS in children with primary and secondary dystonias were similar to those in adults, with excellent results for DYT1 dystonia in children without fixed orthopedic deformity and much more modest results in secondary dystonia. In contrast to reported experience in adults with NBIA, these results in children with NBIA were poor. Infection risk was highest in the youngest patients.

Restricted access

Philip A. Starr, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Neil H. Raskin and Jill L. Ostrem

Object

Cluster headache (CH) is the most severe of the primary headache disorders. Based on the finding that regional cerebral blood flow is increased in the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamic region during a CH attack, a novel neurosurgical procedure for CH was recently introduced: hypothalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Two small case series have been described. Here, the authors report their technical approach, intraoperative physiological observations, and 1-year outcomes after hypothalamic DBS in four patients with medically intractable CHs.

Methods

Patients underwent unilateral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided stereotactic implantation of a Medtronic DBS (model 3387) lead and Soletra pulse generator system. Intended tip coordinates were 3 mm posterior, 5 mm inferior, and 2 mm lateral to the midcommissural point. Microelectrode recording and intraoperative test stimulation were performed. Lead locations were measured on postoperative MR images. The intensity, frequency, and severity of headaches throughout a 1-week period were tracked in patient diaries immediately prior to surgery and after 1 year of continuous stimulation.

At the 1-year follow-up examination, DBS had produced a greater than 50% reduction in headache intensity or frequency in two of four cases. Active contacts were located 3 to 6 mm posterior to the mammillothalamic tract. Neurons in the target region showed low-frequency tonic discharge.

Conclusions

In two previously published case series, headache relief was obtained in many but not all patients. The results of these open-label studies justify a larger, prospective trial but do not yet justify widespread clinical application of this technique.

Restricted access

Chadwick W. Christine, J. William Langston, Robert S. Turner and Philip A. Starr

Parkinsonism caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure was first identified in intravenous drug users. This neurotoxicant has since been used extensively in nonhuman primates to induce an experimental model of Parkinson disease (PD). In this study, the authors examined the intraoperative physiological characteristics and efficacy of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 1 of only 4 known living patients with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. The physiological recordings were consistent with recordings from MPTP-treated primates and humans with PD, thus providing further validation for the MPTP model in the study of the neurophysiology of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit in PD. Furthermore, DBS produced a significant clinical improvement in this patient similar to the improvement seen after DBS in patients with idiopathic PD. This unique case has important implications for translational research that employs the MPTP-primate model for symptomatic therapy in PD.

Restricted access

Philip A. Starr, Thyagarajan Subramanian, Roy A. E. Bakay and Thomas Wichmann

✓ During ablative surgery and implantation of deep-brain stimulators for the treatment of movement disorders, electrophysiological techniques are often used for localization of subcortical targets. New restorative therapies for Parkinson disease, aimed at delivering drugs or cells to the substantia nigra (SN), are becoming available. Therefore, precise surgical approaches to the dopaminergic cell—containing region of the SN are required to avoid damage to nearby structures such as the corticospinal tract and subthalamic nucleus. In a study conducted in nonhuman primates, the authors evaluated the utility and accuracy of electrophysiological techniques in localizing the SN.

Three adult rhesus monkeys were used as hosts for intranigral cell transplants. The monkeys were rendered hemiparkinsonian by intracarotid injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. With the aid of stereotactic guidance, chronic recording chambers were placed on the skull of each monkey and directed at the SN. In each monkey, 20 to 40 trajectories were explored with a microelectrode. Spontaneous and movement-related single-unit activities were recorded in the SN, pars reticulata, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, striatum, thalamus, and red nucleus. Motor and ocular responses to microstimulation in the subthalamic area were noted. Using the electrophysiological and stereotactic information that was obtained, three-dimensional maps of the nigral complex were constructed to infer the location of the SN pars compacta. The maps were subsequently used to guide intranigral placement of fetal dopaminergic cells. Accurate delivery was verified by histological analysis.

Based on the characteristic electrophysiological properties of the SN and surrounding structures in the parkinsonian state, microelectrode recording techniques may be used to ensure accurate placement of cell transplantation in the intranigral region.

Restricted access

Philip A. Starr, Chadwick W. Christine, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Nadja Lindsey, Deborah Byrd, Anthony Mosley and William J. Marks Jr.

Object. Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a procedure that is rapidly gaining acceptance for the treatment of symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), but there are few detailed descriptions of the surgical procedure itself. The authors present the technical approach used to implant 76 stimulators into the STNs of patients with PD and the lead locations, which were verified on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images.

Methods. Implantation procedures were performed with the aid of stereotactic MR imaging, microelectrode recording (MER) in the region of the stereotactic target to define the motor area of the STN, and intraoperative test stimulation to assess the thresholds for stimulation-induced adverse effects. All patients underwent postoperative MR imaging, which was performed using volumetric gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast—spin echo techniques, computational reformatting of the MR image into standard anatomical planes, and quantitative measurements of lead location with respect to the midcommissural point and the red nucleus. Lead locations were statistically correlated with physiological data obtained during MER and intraoperative test stimulation.

Conclusions. The authors' approach to implantation of DBS leads into the STN was associated with consistent lead placement in the dorsolateral STN, a low rate of morbidity, efficient use of operating room time, and robust improvement in motor function. The mean coordinates of the middle of the electrode array, measured on postoperative MR images, were 11.6 mm lateral, 2.9 mm posterior, and 4.7 mm inferior to the midcommissural point, and 6.5 mm lateral and 3.5 mm anterior to the center of the red nucleus. Voltage thresholds for several types of stimulation-induced adverse effects were predictive of lead location. Technical nuances of the surgery are described in detail.

Restricted access

Derek G. Southwell, Harjus S. Birk, Paul S. Larson, Philip A. Starr, Leo P. Sugrue and Kurtis I. Auguste

Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are benign lesions that cause medically refractory seizures, behavioral disturbances, and endocrine dysfunction. Open resection of HHs does not guarantee seizure freedom and carries a relatively high risk of morbidity. Minimally invasive stereotactic laser ablation has recently been described as an effective and safe alternative for HH treatment. Prior studies have not, however, assessed HH lesion size and morphology, 2 factors that may influence treatment results and, ultimately, the generalizability of their findings. In this paper, the authors describe seizure outcomes for 5 pediatric patients who underwent laser ablation of sessile HHs. Lesions were treated using a frameless, interventional MRI-guided approach, which facilitated laser targeting to specific components of these complex lesions. The authors’ experiences in these cases substantiate prior work demonstrating the effectiveness of laser therapy for HHs, while elucidating HH complexity as a potentially important factor in laser treatment planning, and in the interpretation of early studies describing this treatment method.

Restricted access

Camilla Kilbane, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Elena Ryapolova-Webb, Salman Qasim, Graham A. Glass, Philip A. Starr and Jill L. Ostrem

OBJECT

Holmes tremor (HT) is characterized by irregular, low-frequency (< 4.5 Hz) tremor occurring at rest, with posture, and with certain actions, often affecting proximal muscles. Previous reports have tended to highlight the use of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in cases of medication-refractory HT. In this study, the authors report the clinical outcome and analysis of single-unit recordings in patients with medication-refractory HT treated with globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 4 patients treated with pallidal DBS for medication-refractory HT at the University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Clinical outcomes were measured at baseline and after surgery using an abbreviated motor-severity Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) tremor rating scale. Intraoperative microelectrode recordings were performed with patients in the awake state. The neurophysiological characteristics identified in HT were then also compared with characteristics previously described in Parkinson's disease (PD) studied at the authors' institution.

RESULTS

The mean percentage improvement in tremor motor severity was 78.87% (range 59.9%–94.4%) as measured using the FTM tremor rating scale, with an average length of follow-up of 33.75 months (range 18–52 months). Twenty-eight GPi neurons were recorded intraoperatively in the resting state and 13 of these were also recorded during contralateral voluntary arm movement. The mean firing rate at rest in HT was 56.2 ± 28.5 Hz, and 63.5 ± 19.4 Hz with action, much lower than the GPi recordings in PD. GPi unit oscillations of 2–8 Hz were prominent in both patients with HT and those with PD, but in HT, unlike PD, these oscillations were not suppressed by voluntary movement.

CONCLUSIONS

The efficacy of GPi DBS exceeded that reported in prior studies of ventrolateral thalamus DBS and suggest GPi may be a better target for treating HT. These clinical and neurophysiological findings help illuminate evolving models of HT and highlight the importance of cerebellar–basal ganglia interactions.

Full access

Fedor Panov, Emily Levin, Coralie de Hemptinne, Nicole C. Swann, Salman Qasim, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Jill L. Ostrem and Philip A. Starr

OBJECTIVE

Contemporary theories of the pathophysiology of movement disorders emphasize abnormal oscillatory activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops, but these have been studied in humans mainly using depth recordings. Recording from the surface of the cortex using electrocorticography (ECoG) provides a much higher amplitude signal than depth recordings, is less susceptible to deep brain stimulation (DBS) artifacts, and yields a surrogate measure of population spiking via “broadband gamma” (50–200 Hz) activity. Therefore, a technical approach to movement disorders surgery was developed that employs intraoperative ECoG as a research tool.

METHODS

One hundred eighty-eight patients undergoing DBS for the treatment of movement disorders were studied under an institutional review board–approved protocol. Through the standard bur hole exposure that is clinically indicated for DBS lead insertion, a strip electrode (6 or 28 contacts) was inserted to cover the primary motor or prefrontal cortical areas. Localization was confirmed by the reversal of the somatosensory evoked potential and intraoperative CT or 2D fluoroscopy. The ECoG potentials were recorded at rest and during a variety of tasks and analyzed offline in the frequency domain, focusing on activity between 3 and 200 Hz. Strips were removed prior to closure. Postoperative MRI was inspected for edema, signal change, or hematoma that could be related to the placement of the ECoG strip.

RESULTS

One hundred ninety-eight (99%) strips were successfully placed. Two ECoG placements were aborted due to resistance during the attempted passage of the electrode. Perioperative surgical complications occurred in 8 patients, including 5 hardware infections, 1 delayed chronic subdural hematoma requiring evacuation, 1 intraparenchymal hematoma, and 1 venous infarction distant from the site of the recording. None of these appeared to be directly related to the use of ECoG.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ECoG has long been used in neurosurgery for functional mapping and localization of seizure foci. As applied during DBS surgery, it has become an important research tool for understanding the brain networks in movement disorders and the mechanisms of therapeutic stimulation. In experienced hands, the technique appears to add minimal risk to surgery.