Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are vascular shunts allowing blood to flow from the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus. The characteristic clinical features seen in patients with CCFs are the sequelae of hemodynamic dysfunction within the cavernous sinus. Once routinely treated with open surgical procedures, including carotid ligation or trapping and cavernous sinus exploration, endovascular therapy is now the treatment modality of choice in many cases. The authors provide a review of CCFs, detailing the current classification and clinical management of these lesions. Therapeutic options including conservative management, open surgery, endovascular intervention, and radiosurgical therapy are presented. The complications and treatment results as reported in the contemporary literature are also reviewed.
Jason A. Ellis, Hannah Goldstein, E. Sander Connolly Jr. and Philip M. Meyers
Jason A. Ellis, Juan C. Mejia Munne, Neil A. Feldstein and Philip M. Meyers
Sinus pericranii is an uncommon congenital cranial venous malformation that may become symptomatic in the pediatric population. Both dominant and accessory sinus pericranii, as determined by the intracranial venous drainage pattern, have been described. The dominant variety drain a significant proportion of the intracranial venous outflow while the accessory variety have minimal or no role in this. Classic teachings hold that dominant sinus pericranii should never be treated while accessory sinus pericranii may be safely obliterated. This determination of dominance is solely based on a qualitative assessment of standard venous phase catheter cerebral angiography, leaving some doubt regarding the actual safety of obliteration. In this paper the authors describe a simple and unique method for determining whether intracranial venous outflow may be compromised by sinus pericranii treatment. This involves performing catheter angiography while the lesion is temporarily obliterated by external compression. Analysis of intracranial venous outflow in this setting allows visualization of angiographic changes that will occur once the sinus pericranii is permanently obliterated. Thus, the safety of surgical intervention can be more fully appraised using this technique.
Andrew F. Ducruet, Christopher P. Kellner, E. Sander Connolly Jr. and Philip M. Meyers
Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) represent a rare cause of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. This case demonstrates an unusual DVA associated with venous hypertension, arteriovenous shunting, and a ruptured transitional aneurysm. The authors describe the first use of embolization as a treatment method for an unstable ruptured transitional aneurysm associated with a DVA. This 33-year-old man suffered acute onset of headache, gait ataxia, and left hemiparesis. Computed tomography brain scans demonstrated a deep paramedian right frontal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. No cavernous malformation was apparent on MR imaging. Diagnostic angiography revealed arteriovenous shunting from the right anterior and middle cerebral arteries to a large DVA with an associated arteriovenous fistula, with a 3-mm aneurysm in the transition from pericallosal artery to the collecting vein. Both surgical and endovascular treatment options were considered. The patient underwent repeat angiography on hospital Day 7, at which time the aneurysm had increased to 5 mm, and endovascular treatment was selected. Acrylic occlusion of the aneurysm was performed and confirmed angiographically. The patient's neurological symptoms resolved throughout the hospital stay, and he remains symptom free in the 10 months since treatment. Developmental venous anomalies are not usually associated with arteriovenous shunting and aneurysms as a source of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Endovascular occlusion of the aneurysm without blockage of physiologically necessary venous structures is a possible method of treatment for this complex mixed vascular lesion, and has proven safe and effective in this patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first presentation of this situation in the literature.
Ricardo J. Komotar, J Mocco, David A. Wilson, E. Sander Connolly Jr., Sean D. Lavine and Philip M. Meyers
A substantial number of strokes are caused by intracranial atherosclerosis, a disease that traditionally has been treated medically. Recent technological advancements, however, have revolutionized the treatment of this condition by enabling the use of endovascular methods. In this paper the authors focus on the internal carotid artery, and review relevant studies concerning angioplasty with stent placement for the management of intracranial atherosclerosis in this vessel. With continued experience and a multidisciplinary approach in the evaluation of these patients, favorable outcomes may be achieved.
Adel M. Malek, Van V. Halbach, Stephen Holmes, Constantine C. Phatouros, Philip M. Meyers, Christopher F. Dowd and Randall T. Higashida
Ricardo J. Komotar, J Mocco, David A. Wilson, E. Sander Connolly Jr., Sean D. Lavine and Philip M. Meyers
Intracranial atherosclerosis is the cause of a significant number of strokes. Despite maximal medical therapy, this disease continues to carry a poor prognosis. The authors reviewed studies in which the outcomes after conservative management in patients with intracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis were reported. Analysis of the literature demonstrates that maximal medical therapy frequently fails with this disease, leaving patients at high risk for cerebral infarction and death. A better understanding of the pathophysiological aspects and natural history of this condition may serve to guide clinical decision making and the choice of therapeutic options in this patient population.
Christopher P. Kellner, Raqeeb M. Haque, Philip M. Meyers, Sean D. Lavine, E. Sander Connolly Jr. and Robert A. Solomon
Complex aneurysms of the basilar artery (BA) apex can be successfully treated using surgical occlusion of the proximal BA. Since the introduction of the Guglielmi detachable coil in 1991, the focus on treating BA aneurysms has been on using endovascular techniques. Outcomes with endovascular techniques have been less than optimal for large and complex aneurysms. The authors therefore report on their current 22-year experience with surgical BA occlusion for complex BA aneurysms and long-term outcome.
Fifteen patients underwent surgical BA occlusion at Columbia University Medical Center for complex basilar apex aneurysms between 1987 and 2009. The clinical records of each patient were reviewed for details of presentation, hospital course, operative intervention, and outcome.
Postoperatively, all patient encounters were recorded at discharge, at the 1-month and 1-year follow-up evaluations, and at long-term outcome. Twelve (80%) of 15 patients experienced no new postoperative neurological deficits. Three patients presenting with severe neurological impairment (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score > 3) made excellent recoveries (mRS Scores 1–2) at long-term follow-up. One patient died, 1 suffered a stroke during the postoperative angiogram which resulted in hemiparesis, and 1 suffered internuclear ophthalmoplegia which resolved by the 1-month follow-up. Long-term follow-up occurred at an average of 3 ± 4.5 years, ranging from 2 months (for a recently treated patient) to 18 years. The average mRS score at long-term follow-up was 1 ± 1.5. No patient experienced postoperative hemorrhage, rebleeding, or delayed neurological deterioration.
Surgical occlusion of the BA is an effective treatment option offering a high rate of angiographic cure in a single procedure for patients with complex BA aneurysms. The ability to surgically perform point occlusion of the BA without impairment of brainstem perforators, while maintaining collateral blood flow to the posterior circulation branch vessels, may provide an advantage compared with endovascular treatments.
J Mocco, Ricardo J. Komotar, Sean D. Lavine, Philip M. Meyers, E. Sander Connolly and Robert A. Solomon
Since the publication of preliminary results from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in 1998 there has been a great deal of debate concerning the natural history of these lesions and their attendant risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therefore, the authors reviewed a selected number of crucial studies concerning this topic to determine the best evidence-based estimate of a rupture rate for these lesions. Based on this analysis, the yearly risk of bleeding for an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is estimated to be approximately 1% for aneurysms 7 to 10 mm in diameter. This risk of rupture increases with aneurysm size and it likewise diminishes as the size of the lesion decreases. This general rule serves as a reasonable interpretation of the results reported in the current body of literature.
Fawaz Al-Mufti, David Roh, Shouri Lahiri, Emma Meyers, Jens Witsch, Hans-Peter Frey, Neha Dangayach, Cristina Falo, Stephan A. Mayer, Sachin Agarwal, Soojin Park, Philip M. Meyers, E. Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen and J. Michael Schmidt
The clinical significance of cerebral ultra-early angiographic vasospasm (UEAV), defined as cerebral arterial narrowing within the first 48 hours of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), remains poorly characterized. The authors sought to determine its frequency, predictors, and impact on functional outcome.
The authors prospectively studied UEAV in a cohort of 1286 consecutively admitted patients with aSAH between August 1996 and June 2013. Admission clinical, radiographic, and acute clinical course information was documented during patient hospitalization. Functional outcome was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were generated to assess predictors of UEAV and its relationship to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and outcome. Multiple imputation methods were used to address data lost to follow-up.
The cohort incidence rate of UEAV was 4.6%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, sentinel bleed, and poor admission clinical grade were significantly associated with UEAV. Patients with UEAV had a 2-fold increased risk of DCI (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.9, p = 0.002) and cerebral infarction (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.9, p = 0.04), after adjusting for known predictors. Excluding patients who experienced sentinel bleeding did not change this effect. Patients with UEAV also had a significantly higher hazard for DCI in a multivariable model. UEAV was not found to be significantly associated with poor functional outcome (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4–1.6, p = 0.5).
UEAV may be less frequent than has been reported previously. Patients who exhibit UEAV are at higher risk for refractory DCI that results in cerebral infarction. These patients may benefit from earlier monitoring for signs of DCI and more aggressive treatment. Further study is needed to determine the long-term functional significance of UEAV.
Brian Y. Hwang, Samuel S. Bruce, Geoffrey Appelboom, Matthew A. Piazza, Amanda M. Carpenter, Paul R. Gigante, Christopher P. Kellner, Andrew F. Ducruet, Michael A. Kellner, Rajeev Deb-Sen, Kerry A. Vaughan, Philip M. Meyers and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Clinical methods for evaluating IVH, however, are not well established. This study sought to determine the best IVH grading scale by evaluating the predictive accuracies of IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores in an independent cohort of ICH patients with IVH. Subacute IVH dynamics as well as the impact of external ventricular drain (EVD) placement on IVH and outcome were also investigated.
A consecutive cohort of 142 primary ICH patients with IVH was admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between February 2009 and February 2011. Baseline demographics, clinical presentation, and hospital course were prospectively recorded. Admission CT scans performed within 24 hours of onset were reviewed for ICH location, hematoma volume, and presence of IVH. Intraventricular hemorrhage was categorized according to IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores. For each patient, the last scan performed within 6 days of ictus was similarly evaluated. Outcomes at discharge were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the predictive accuracies of the grading scales for poor outcome (mRS score ≥ 3).
Seventy-three primary ICH patients (51%) had IVH. Median admission IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores were 13, 6, and 8, respectively. Median IVH, Graeb and LeRoux scores decreased to 9 (p = 0.005), 4 (p = 0.002), and 4 (p = 0.003), respectively, within 6 days of ictus. Poor outcome was noted in 55 patients (75%). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were similar among the IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores (0.745, 0.743, and 0.744, respectively) and within 6 days postictus (0.765, 0.722, 0.723, respectively). Moreover, the IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores had similar maximum Youden Indices both at admission (0.515 vs 0.477 vs 0.440, respectively) and within 6 days postictus (0.515 vs 0.339 vs 0.365, respectively). Patients who received EVDs had higher mean IVH volumes (23 ± 26 ml vs 9 ± 11 ml, p = 0.003) and increased incidence of Glasgow Coma Scale scores < 8 (67% vs 38%, p = 0.015) and hydrocephalus (82% vs 50%, p = 0.004) at admission but had similar outcome as those who did not receive an EVD.
The IVH, Graeb, and LeRoux scores predict outcome well with similarly good accuracy in ICH patients with IVH when assessed at admission and within 6 days after hemorrhage. Therefore, any of one of the scores would be equally useful for assessing IVH severity and risk-stratifying ICH patients with regard to outcome. These results suggest that EVD placement may be beneficial for patients with severe IVH, who have particularly poor prognosis at admission, but a randomized clinical trial is needed to conclusively demonstrate its therapeutic value.