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Anthony J. Boniello, Saqib Hasan, Sun Yang, Cyrus M. Jalai, Nancy Worley and Peter G. Passias

OBJECT

Lenke 1C curves are challenging to manage surgically due to the structural thoracic deformity and nonstructural lumbar curve. Selective thoracic fusion (STF) is considered the standard of care because it preserves motion of the lumbar segment, yet nonselective STF (NSTF) remains prevalent. This study aims to identify baseline patient characteristics that drive treatment and to compare postoperative outcomes for both procedures.

METHODS

Studies that compared baseline and postoperative demographic data, health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires, and radiographic parameters of patients with Lenke 1C curves undergoing STF or NSTF were identified for meta-analysis. The effect measure is expressed as a mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. A positive MD signifies a greater STF value, or a mean increase within the group.

RESULTS

One prospective and 6 retrospective case-control studies with sample size of 488 patients (344 STF and 144 NSTF) were identified. Baseline age, sex, and HRQLs were equivalent, except for better scores in the STF group for the Scoliosis Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ): Unrelated to Deformity item (3.47 vs 3.88, p = 0.01) and the Spine Research Society questionnaire, Item 22: Pain (4.13 vs 3.92, p = 0.04). Radiographic findings were significantly worse in NSTF, as measured by the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) Cobb angle (MD: −4.29°, p < 0.01) and TL/L apical vertebral translation (AVT) (MD: −6.08, p < 0.01). Radiographic findings significantly improved in STF, as measured in the main thoracic (MT) Cobb angle (MD: −27.78°, p < 0.01), TL/L Cobb angle (MD: −16.24°, p < 0.01), MT:TL/L Cobb ratio (MD: −0.21, p < 0.01), coronal balance (MD: 0.47, p = 0.02), and thoracic kyphosis (MD: 7.87°, p < 0.01); and in NSTF in proximal thoracic (PT) Cobb angle (24° vs 14.1°, p < 0.01), MT Cobb angle (53.5° vs 20.5°, p < 0.01), and TL/L Cobb angle (41.6° vs 16.6°, p < 0.01). Postoperative TL/L Cobb angle (23.1° vs 16.6°, p < 0.01) was significantly higher in STF; but PT Cobb angle, MT Cobb angle, and MT:TL/L Cobb ratio are equivalent.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with larger lumbar compensatory curves displaying a larger degree of coronal translation, as measured by the TL/L AVT, are more likely to undergo an NSTF. Contrary to established guidelines, larger MT curve magnitudes and MT:TL/L Cobb angle ratios have not been found to influence the decision to pursue a selective thoracic fusion. Although overall both STF and NSTF groups are found to have effective postoperative coronal balance, the STF group has only modest improvements in the lumbar curve position as determined by a relatively unchanged TL/L AVT. Furthermore, surgeons may prefer NSTF in patients who may have a worse overall perception of their spinal deformity as measured by HRQL measures of pain and desire for appearance change.

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Erratum

Brain oxygen tension and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Rohan Ramakrishna, Michael Stiefel, Joshua Udoetuk, Alejandro Spiotta, Joshua M. Levine, W. Andrew Kofke, Eric Zager, Wei Yang and Peter Le Roux

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Kaitlin Peace, Eileen Maloney-Wilensky, Suzanne Frangos, Marianne Hujcs, Joshua Levine, W. Andrew Kofke, Wei Yang and Peter D. Le Roux

Object

Follow-up head CT scans are important in neurocritical care but involve intrahospital transport that may be associated with potential hazards including a deleterious effect on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2). Portable head CT (pHCT) scans offer an alternative imaging technique without a need for patient transport. In this study, the investigators examined the effects of pHCT scans on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and PbtO2 in patients with severe brain injury.

Methods

Fifty-seven pHCT scans were obtained in 34 patients (mean age of 42 ± 15 years) who underwent continuous ICP, CPP, and PbtO2 monitoring in the neuro intensive care unit at a university-based Level I trauma center. Patient ICU records were retrospectively reviewed and physiological data obtained during the 3 hours before and after pHCT scans were examined.

Results

Before pHCT, the mean ICP and CPP were 14.3 ± 7.4 and 78.9 ± 20.2 mm Hg, respectively. Portable HCT had little effect on ICP (mean ICP 14.1 ± 6.6 mm Hg, p = 0.84) and CPP (mean CPP 81.0 ± 19.8 mm Hg, p = 0.59). The mean PbtO2 was similar before and after pHCT (33.2 ± 17.0 mm Hg and 31.6 ± 15.9 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.6). Ten episodes of brain hypoxia (PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg) were observed before pHCT; these episodes prompted scans. Brain hypoxia persisted in 5 patients after pHCT despite treatment. No new episodes of brain hypoxia were observed during or after pHCT.

Conclusions

These data suggest that pHCT scans do not have a detectable effect on a critically ill patient's ICP, CPP, or PbtO2.

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Benjamin C. Kennedy, Michael M. McDowell, Peter H. Yang, Caroline M. Wilson, Sida Li, Todd C. Hankinson, Neil A. Feldstein and Richard C. E. Anderson

Object

Pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) carry a significant risk of developing moyamoya syndrome (MMS) and brain ischemia. The authors sought to review the safety and efficacy of pial synangiosis in the treatment of MMS in children with SCA by performing a comprehensive review of all previously reported cases in the literature.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic records in 17 pediatric patients with SCA treated at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York (MSCHONY) who developed radiological evidence of MMS and underwent pial synangiosis between 1996 and 2012. The authors then added any additional reported cases of pial synangiosis for this population in the literature for a combined analysis of clinical and radiographic outcomes.

Results

The combined data consisted of 48 pial synangiosis procedures performed in 30 patients. Of these, 27 patients (90%) presented with seizure, stroke, or transient ischemic attack, whereas 3 (10%) were referred after transcranial Doppler screening. At the time of surgery, the median age was 12 years. Thirteen patients (43%) suffered an ischemic stroke while on chronic transfusion therapy. Long-term follow-up imaging (MR angiography or catheter angiography) at a mean of 25 months postoperatively was available in 39 (81%) treated hemispheres. In 34 (87%) of those hemispheres there were demonstrable collateral vessels on imaging. There were 4 neurological events in 1590 cumulative months of follow-up, or 1 event per 33 patient-years. In the patients in whom complete data were available (MSCHONY series, n = 17), the postoperative stroke rate was reduced more than 6-fold from the preoperative rate (p = 0.0003).

Conclusions

Pial synangiosis in patients with SCA, MMS, and brain ischemia appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. Transcranial Doppler and/or MRI screening in asymptomatic patients with SCA is recommended for the diagnosis of MMS.

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Rohan Ramakrishna, Michael Stiefel, Joshua Udoteuk, Alejandro Spiotta, Joshua M. Levine, W. Andrew Kofke, Eric Zager, Wei Yang and Peter LeRoux

Object

Poor outcome is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical studies suggest that cerebral hypoxia after traumatic brain injury is associated with poor outcome. In this study we examined the relationship between brain oxygen tension (PbtO2) and death after aneurysmal SAH.

Methods

Forty-six patients, including 34 women and 12 men (Glasgow Coma Scale Score ≤ 8 and median age 58.5 years) who underwent PbtO2 monitoring were studied prospectively during a 2-year period in a neurosurgical intensive care unit at a University Level I Trauma Center. Brain oxygen tension, intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain temperature were continuously monitored, and treatment was directed toward ICP, CPP, and PbtO2 targets. The relationship between PbtO2 and 1-month survival was examined.

Results

Data were available from 5424 hours of PbtO2 monitoring. For the entire cohort the mean ICP, CPP, and PbtO2 were 13.85 ± 2.40, 84.05 ± 3.41, and 30.79 ± 1.91 mm Hg, respectively. Twenty-five patients died (54%). The mean daily PbtO2 was higher in survivors than nonsurvivors (33.94 ± 2.74 vs 28.14 ± 2.59 mm Hg; p = 0.05). In addition, survivors had significantly shorter episodes of compromised PbtO2 (defined as 15–25 mm Hg) than nonsurvivors (125.85 ± 15.44 vs 271.14 ± 55.23 minutes; p < 0.01). Intracranial pressure was similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. In contrast, the average CPP was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than survivors (76.96 ± 5.50 vs 92.49 ± 2.75 mm Hg; p = 0.01). When PbtO2 was stratified according to CPP level, survivors had higher PbtO2 levels. Following logistic regression, the number of episodes of compromised PbtO2 (odds ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 1.003–1.2) and number of episodes of cerebral hypoxia (< 15 mm Hg; odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.7) were more frequent in those who died.

Conclusions

Patient deaths after SAH may be associated with a lower mean PbtO2 and longer periods of compromised cerebral oxygenation than in survivors. This knowledge may be used to help direct therapy.

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Or Cohen-Inbar, Cheng-Chia Lee, Seyed H. Mousavi, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Antonio Meola, Peter Nakaji, Norissa Honea, Matthew Johnson, Mahmoud Abbassy, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Danilo Silva, Huai-Che Yang, Inga Grills, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumors widely recognized for their aggressive clinical behavior, high recurrence rates, and distant and extracranial metastases even after a gross-total resection. The authors report a large multicenter study, through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF), reviewing management and outcome following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for recurrent or newly discovered HPCs.

METHODS

Eight centers participating in the IGKRF participated in this study. A total of 90 patients harboring 133 tumors were identified. Patients were included if they had a histologically diagnosed HPC managed with SRS during the period 1988–2014 and had a minimum of 6 months' clinical and radiological follow-up. A de-identified database was created. The patients' median age was 48.5 years (range 13–80 years). Prior treatments included embolization (n = 8), chemotherapy (n = 2), and fractionated radiotherapy (n = 34). The median tumor volume at the time of SRS was 4.9 cm3 (range 0.2–42.4 cm3). WHO Grade II (typical) HPCs formed 78.9% of the cohort (n = 71). The median margin and maximum doses delivered were 15 Gy (range 2.8–24 Gy) and 32 Gy (range 8–51 Gy), respectively. The median clinical and radiographic follow-up periods were 59 months (range 6–190 months) and 59 months (range 6–183 months), respectively. Prognostic variables associated with local tumor control and post-SRS survival were evaluated using Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Actuarial survival after SRS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS

Imaging studies performed at last follow-up demonstrated local tumor control in 55% of tumors and 62.2% of patients. New remote intracranial tumors were found in 27.8% of patients, and 24.4% of patients developed extracranial metastases. Adverse radiation effects were noted in 6.7% of patients. During the study period, 32.2% of the patients (n = 29) died. The actuarial overall survival was 91.5%, 82.1%, 73.9%, 56.7%, and 53.7% at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, respectively, after initial SRS. Local progression–free survival (PFS) was 81.7%, 66.3%, 54.5%, 37.2%, and 25.5% at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, respectively, after initial SRS. In our cohort, 32 patients underwent 48 repeat SRS procedures for 76 lesions. Review of these 76 treated tumors showed that 17 presented as an in-field recurrence and 59 were defined as an out-of-field recurrence. Margin dose greater than 16 Gy (p = 0.037) and tumor grade (p = 0.006) were shown to influence PFS. The development of extracranial metastases was shown to influence overall survival (p = 0.029) in terms of PFS; repeat (multiple) SRS showed additional benefit.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS provides a reasonable rate of local tumor control and a low risk of adverse effects. It also leads to neurological stability or improvement in the majority of patients. Long-term close clinical and imaging follow-up is necessary due to the high probability of local recurrence and distant metastases. Repeat SRS is often effective for treating new or recurrent HPCs.

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Jason P. Sheehan, Shota Tanaka, Michael J. Link, Bruce E. Pollock, Douglas Kondziolka, David Mathieu, Christopher Duma, A. Byron Young, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Heyoung McBride, Peter A. Weisskopf, Zhiyuan Xu, Hideyuki Kano, Huai-che Yang and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Glomus tumors are rare skull base neoplasms that frequently involve critical cerebrovascular structures and lower cranial nerves. Complete resection is often difficult and may increase cranial nerve deficits. Stereotactic radiosurgery has gained an increasing role in the management of glomus tumors. The authors of this study examine the outcomes after radiosurgery in a large, multicenter patient population.

Methods

Under the auspices of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 8 Gamma Knife surgery centers that treat glomus tumors combined their outcome data retrospectively. One hundred thirty-four patient procedures were included in the study (134 procedures in 132 patients, with each procedure being analyzed separately). Prior resection was performed in 51 patients, and prior fractionated external beam radiotherapy was performed in 6 patients. The patients' median age at the time of radiosurgery was 59 years. Forty percent had pulsatile tinnitus at the time of radiosurgery. The median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 50.5 months (range 5–220 months).

Results

Overall tumor control was achieved in 93% of patients at last follow-up; actuarial tumor control was 88% at 5 years postradiosurgery. Absence of trigeminal nerve dysfunction at the time of radiosurgery (p = 0.001) and higher number of isocenters (p = 0.005) were statistically associated with tumor progression–free tumor survival. Patients demonstrating new or progressive cranial nerve deficits were also likely to demonstrate tumor progression (p = 0.002). Pulsatile tinnitus improved in 49% of patients who reported it at presentation. New or progressive cranial nerve deficits were noted in 15% of patients; improvement in preexisting cranial nerve deficits was observed in 11% of patients. No patient died as a result of tumor progression.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery was a well-tolerated management strategy that provided a high rate of long-term glomus tumor control. Symptomatic tinnitus improved in almost one-half of the patients. Overall neurological status and cranial nerve function were preserved or improved in the vast majority of patients after radiosurgery.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010