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William T. Couldwell, Peter Kan and Martin H. Weiss

✓ The most common nonendocrine complication after transsphenoidal surgery is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Many neurosurgeons have advocated the routine reconstruction of the floor of the sella turcica using autologous fat, muscle, fascia, and either cartilage or bone after transsphenoidal surgery to prevent postoperative CSF fistulas. However, the use of autologous grafting requires a second incision, prolongs operative time, and adds to the patient's postoperative discomfort. In addition, the presence of sellar packing may interfere with the interpretation of postoperative images. To avoid these disadvantages, the authors suggest that routine sellar reconstruction or closure after transsphenoidal surgery is unnecessary unless an intraoperative CSF leak is encountered. The incidence of postoperative CSF leakage in the patients reported on in this series is no higher than that reported by others, and no other complications such as pneu-matocele have been encountered in approximately 2700 patients in whom no intraoperative CSF leak was encountered. The authors conclude that routine closure of the floor of the sella turcica or sphenoid is unnecessary in the absence of intraoperative CSF leak.

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Peter Kan, James K. Liu and William T. Couldwell

✓The acronym PHACES describes a rare neurocutaneous syndrome that comprises posterior fossa malformations, facial hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta and cardiac defects, eye abnormalities, and sternal defects. Facial hemangiomas constitute the hallmark of this disorder. Giant intracranial aneurysms have not been previously reported in the literature as manifestations of PHACES syndrome and can present difficult therapeutic challenges. The authors describe a unique case of a 13-year-old adolescent boy with an incomplete phenotypic expression of PHACES syndrome who harbored diffuse cerebral angiodysplasia and a giant fusiform internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm extending from the distal cavernous segment to the supraclinoid segment. The aneurysm was successfully treated with a high-flow saphenous vein graft bypass from the external carotid artery to the distal middle cerebral artery followed by proximal ICA occlusion. This case represents a unique vascular manifestation of PHACES syndrome that required a complex management strategy. The authors review the literature on this rare disorder and emphasize the importance of considering the diagnosis of PHACES syndrome in child with a facial hemangioma.

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Peter Kan, Edwin A. Stevens, Richard R. Orlandi and William T. Couldwell

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William T. Couldwell, Peter Kan, James K. Liu and Ronald I. Apfelbaum

✓ Meningiomas are the most common tumors affecting the cavernous sinus (CS). Despite advances in microsurgery and radiosurgery, treatment of CS meningiomas remains difficult and controversial. As in cases of other meningiomas, the goal of treatment for CS meningioma is long-term growth control and preservation of neural function. Gross-total resection, the ideal treatment for meningioma, is not always possible to obtain in patients with CS meningiomas with an acceptable level of morbidity. Therefore, microsurgery and radiosurgery have recently been advocated as a combined therapy to achieve good control of tumor growth and favorable functional outcome. The authors describe a technique in which tumor volume can be reduced to a minimal residual amount, while preserving cranial nerve function. This enables the smallest field to be treated radiosurgically. The optic nerve is decompressed, and the tumor mass is reduced to provide at least a 5-mm interpositional distance between the optic nerve and the residual lesion. Direct decompression of the CS, with opening of the lateral and superior sinus walls, and piecemeal removal of the tumor in “safe” locations are performed to facilitate an improvement in cranial nerve function. The authors describe the use of this technique in a series of patients and demonstrate improvement of cranial nerve function in a subset of these patients.

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James K. Liu, Peter Kan, S. V. Karwande and William T. Couldwell

Direct cerebral revascularization is an important procedure in the treatment of certain complex aneurysms and skull base tumors when acute sacrifice of the internal carotid artery is required. It likely remains an appropriate treatment in a small subgroup of patients with cerebral ischemia refractory to maximal medical management. Similar to cardiovascular surgery, the choice of a graft conduit is critical for a successful outcome. The standard conduits are interposition vein grafts (usually the greater saphenous vein), free arterial grafts (radial artery), and pedicled arterial grafts (superficial temporal artery). The goal of this review is to summarize the conduits commonly used in cerebral revascularization with emphasis on their patency rates and flow characteristics. Comparisons are made with similar data available in the cardiovascular literature.

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James K. LIU, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Edward R. Laws Jr., Chad D. Cole, Peter Kan and William T. Couldwell

✓ The transnasal transsphenoidal approach is the preferred route for removal of most lesions of the sella turcica. The concept of transnasal surgery traversing the sphenoid sinus to reach the sella has existed for nearly a century. A comprehensive historical overview of the evolution of transsphenoidal surgery has been reported previously. In the present vignette, the authors focus on transsphenoidal surgery in the early 1900s, particularly on the methods advocated by Harvey Cushing and Oskar Hirsch, two prominent pituitary surgeons who pioneered the transsphenoidal technique. Cushing championed the sublabial approach, whereas Hirsch was the master of the endonasal route. Coincidentally, both surgeons independently performed the submucous septal resection for the first time on June 4, 1910. Although Cushing's and Hirsch's approaches were predicated on the work of their predecessors, their transsphenoidal procedures became the two most popular techniques and, for future generations of pituitary surgeons, laid the foundation for modern transsphenoidal surgery. In this comparative analysis, the authors compare the operative nuances of the approaches of Cushing and Hirsch and describe the contributions of these pioneers to modern transsphenoidal surgery.

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Oligodendroglioma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as synchronous primary brain tumors

Case report with histological and molecular differentiation of the tumors and review of the literature

Peter Kan, Oren Gottfried, Deborah T. Blumenthal, Jeannette J. Townsend, Ela Drozd-Borysiuk, Arthur R. Brothman and Randy L. Jensen

✓ Multiple metastatic brain tumors and multifocal primary brain tumors of a single histological type are well described in the literature. The concurrent presence of multiple primary brain tumors with different histological characteristics, however, is very rare. The authors describe the first known case in which an oligodendroglioma and a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) presented as synchronous primary brain tumors in the same patient.

This 43-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of progressive headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enhancing heterogeneous right medial cerebellar lesion and a larger calcified, nonenhancing, heterogeneous right frontal lesion with surrounding edema and a mass effect. The results of a metastatic workup were unremarkable.

The patient underwent an initial right frontotemporal craniotomy and a subsequent suboccipital craniectomy 2 years later for resection of the posterior fossa lesion. Histological examination revealed the frontal and cerebellar lesions to be an oligodendroglioma and JPA, respectively. A molecular analysis detected a deletion of chromosome 1p36 in the oligodendroglioma, but not in the JPA. After the initial operation, the patient received follow-up care for his oligodendroglioma, but eventually required temozolomide for tumor progression. His condition remains stable both neurologically and according to imaging studies.

The authors describe the first known case in which a low-grade oligodendroglioma and a JPA presented as synchronous primary brain tumors. They review the literature on multiple primary brain tumors with different histological characteristics and discuss potential mechanisms for the development of these lesions.

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Eric A. Goethe, James C. Bayley, Brandon Bertot, Peter T. Kan and Sandi Lam

Neonatal intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment is largely conservative, though interventions to evacuate intraventricular and intraparenchymal hematomas (IPHs) have been applied. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for the treatment of IPH has increasingly been shown to be a useful strategy in adults; however, it has not been studied in children, and the technology has been more commonly applied to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Here, the authors describe, to the best of their knowledge, the first use of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for IPH in a newborn.

An 8-week-old female presented with IPH secondary to left M3 aneurysm rupture, which was treated with coil embolization for aneurysm securement and vessel sacrifice, followed by IPH evacuation using endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration. Through applying this approach in a newborn, the authors gained technical insight not previously reported in the application of this technique in similar cases in adults or in cases of IVH. They highlight this case to share learning points and technical challenges regarding the application of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration in a newborn along with learning points for imaging and visualization. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration can be used to treat IPH in select newborns. Further study is needed to improve efficacy and ease when applying this approach in very young patients.

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Peter T. Kan, Kenneth V. Snyder, Parham Yashar, Adnan H. Siddiqui, L. Nelson Hopkins and Elad I. Levy

Computed tomography perfusion scanning generates physiological flow parameters of the brain parenchyma, allowing differentiation of ischemic penumbra and core infarct. Perfusion maps, along with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, are used as the bases for endovascular stroke intervention at the authors' institute, regardless of the time interval from stroke onset. With case examples, the authors illustrate their perfusion-based imaging guidelines in patient selection for endovascular treatment in the setting of acute stroke.

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Evan Joyce, Michael T. Bounajem, Jonathan Scoville, Ajith J. Thomas, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Howard A. Riina, Omar Tanweer, Elad I. Levy, Alejandro M. Spiotta, Bradley A. Gross, Brian T. Jankowitz, C. Michael Cawley, Alexander A. Khalessi, Aditya S. Pandey, Andrew J. Ringer, Ricardo Hanel, Rafael A. Ortiz, David Langer, Michael R. Levitt, Mandy Binning, Philipp Taussky, Peter Kan and Ramesh Grandhi

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of already common chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) and other nonacute subdural hematomas (NASHs) in the elderly is expected to rise as the population ages over the coming decades. Surgical management is associated with recurrence and exposes elderly patients to perioperative and operative risks. Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization offers the potential for a minimally invasive, less morbid treatment in this age group. The clinical and radiographic outcomes after MMA embolization treatment for NASHs have not been adequately described in elderly patients. In this paper, the authors describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes after 151 cases of MMA embolization for NASHs among 121 elderly patients.

METHODS

In a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database across 15 US academic centers, the authors identified patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent MMA embolization for the treatment of NASHs between November 2017 and February 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and radiographic factors, treatment factors, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing elderly (age 65–79 years) and advanced elderly (age > 80 years) patients.

RESULTS

MMA embolization was successfully performed in 98% of NASHs (in 148 of 151 cases) in 121 patients. Seventy elderly patients underwent 87 embolization procedures, and 51 advanced elderly patients underwent 64 embolization procedures. Elderly and advanced elderly patients had similar rates of embolization for upfront (46% vs 61%), recurrent (39% vs 33%), and prophylactic (i.e., with concomitant surgical intervention; 15% vs 6%) NASH treatment. Transfemoral access was used in most patients, and the procedure time was approximately 1 hour in both groups. Particle embolization with supplemental coils was most common, used in 51% (44/87) and 44% (28/64) of attempts for the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively. NASH thickness decreased significantly from initial thickness to 6 weeks, with additional decrease in thickness observed in both groups at 90 days. At longest follow-up, the treated NASHs had stabilized or improved in 91% and 98% of the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively, with > 50% improvement seen in > 60% of patients for each group. Surgical rescue was necessary in 4.6% and 7.8% of cases, and the overall mortality was 8.6% and 3.9% for elderly and advanced elderly patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

MMA embolization can be used safely and effectively as an alternative or adjunctive minimally invasive treatment for NASHs in elderly and advanced elderly patients.