Intravenous and intraarterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remains underutilized in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, largely due to strict adherence to the concept of the therapeutic time window for administration. Recent efforts to expand the number of patients eligible for thrombolysis have been mirrored by an evolution in endovascular recanalization technology and techniques. As a result, there is a growing need to establish efficient and reliable means by which to select candidates for endovascular intervention beyond the traditional criteria of time from symptom onset. Perfusion imaging techniques, particularly CT perfusion used in combination with CT angiography, represent an increasingly recognized means by which to identify those patients who stand to benefit most from endovascular recanalization. Additionally, CT perfusion and CT angiography appear to provide sufficient data by which to exclude patients in whom there is little chance of neurological recovery or a substantial risk of postprocedure symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. The authors review the current literature as it pertains to the limitations of time-based selection of patients for intervention, the increasing utilization of endovascular therapy, and the development of a CT perfusion-based selection of acute stroke patients for endovascular recanalization. Future endeavors must prospectively evaluate the utility and safety of CT perfusion-based selection of candidates for endovascular intervention.
Peter S. Amenta, Muhammad S. Ali, Aaron S. Dumont, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour
Peter S. Amenta and Jacques J. Morcos
The cerebellopontine angle is the site for a wide-range of neoplastic and vascular pathologies. The retrosigmoid craniotomy remains the primary means by which to gain surgical access to this anatomically complex region. We present our standard technique for the completion of a retrosigmoid craniotomy and the resection of a left-sided vestibular schwannoma. Anatomy pertinent to the approach, including, the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, cranial nerves, and internal auditory canal (IAC) is displayed. Special emphasis is placed on patient positioning, adequate bone removal, and tumor resection. The drilling of the IAC and tumor dissection from the VII-VIII complex is also highlighted. Hearing preservation was achieved.
The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/FFZju5vcBi0.