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Charles C. Wood, Dennis D. Spencer, Truett Allison, Gregory McCarthy, Peter D. Williamson and William R. Goff

✓ The traditional means of localizing sensorimotor cortex during surgery is Penfield's procedure of mapping sensory and motor responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the cortical surface. This procedure can accurately localize sensorimotor cortex but is time-consuming and best carried out in awake, cooperative patients. An alternative localization procedure is presented that involves cortical surface recordings of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's), providing accurate and rapid localization in patients under either local or general anesthesia.

The morphology and amplitude of median nerve SEP's recorded from the cortical surface varied systematically as a function of spatial location relative to the sensorimotor hand representation area. These results were validated in 18 patients operated on under local anesthesia in whom the sensorimotor cortex was independently localized by electrical stimulation mapping; the two procedures were in agreement in all cases. Similar SEP results were demonstrated in an additional 27 patients operated on under general anesthesia without electrical stimulation mapping.

The following three spatial relationships between SEP's and the anatomy of the sensorimotor cortex permit rapid and accurate localization of the sensorimotor hand area: 1) SEP's with approximately mirror-image waveforms are recorded at electrode sites in the hand area on opposite sides of the central sulcus (P20–N30 precentrally (for consistency) and N20–P30 postcentrally); 2) the P25–N35 is recorded from the postcentral gyrus as well as a small region of the precentral gyrus in the immediate vicinity of the central sulcus: this waveform is largest on the postcentral gyrus about 1 cm medial to the focus of the 20- and 30-msec potentials; and 3) regardless of component identification, maximum SEP amplitudes are recorded from the hand representation area on the precentral and postcentral gyri.

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René Post, Jantien Hoogmoed, Dagmar Verbaan and W. Peter Vandertop

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Davis P. Argersinger, Vitaliy P. Natkha, Matthew J. Shepard, Alissa A. Thomas, Andrew J. Oler, Peter R. Williamson, Prashant Chittiboina and John D. Heiss

Central nervous system (CNS) candida infections are often associated with a poor prognosis. Typically, CNS candidiasis presents as meningitis or microabscesses. Here, the authors report a patient with a challenging presentation of a CNS Candida infection as a discrete, large cauda equina abscess. The patient initially presented with ventriculomegaly due to fourth ventricular outflow obstruction and a cauda equina mass. The patient was treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and underwent a lumbar laminectomy for exploration of the lumbar lesion. An intradural abscess was encountered during surgery. Fungal wet mount revealed fungal elements and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The patient did not have any known predisposition to fungal infections; therefore, the authors performed whole-exome sequencing using peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA. They found heterozygous missense variants in the following genes: colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (RASGRF1)—genes that have been specifically associated with protection from CNS candidiasis via caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) signaling, and phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCG2)—a lectin receptor involved in candidiasis. The authors’ experience suggests that C. albicans can present as a cauda equina abscess. Hydrocephalus, a result of diffuse arachnoiditis, is a potential complication from intradural fungal abscesses.

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Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Fuyuki Hirashima, David W. Roberts, Barbara C. Jobst, Karen L. Gilbert, Robert M. Roth, Laura A. Flashman, Brenna C. McDonald, Andrew J. Saykin, Rod C. Scott, Eric Dinnerstein, Julie Preston, Peter D. Williamson and Vijay M. Thadani

Object

Previous comparisons of standard temporal lobectomy (STL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been limited by inadequate long-term follow-up, variable definitions of favorable outcome, and inadequate consideration of psychiatric comorbidities.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes in a noncontemporaneous cohort of 69 patients with unilateral refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis after either an STL or an SelAH and examined seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes.

Results

The mean duration of follow-up for STL was 9.7 years (range 1–18 years), and for trans–middle temporal gyrus SelAH (mtg-SelAH) it was 6.85 years (range 1–15 years). There was no significant difference in seizure outcome when “favorable” was defined as time to loss of Engel Class I or II status; better seizure outcome was seen in the STL group when “favorable” was defined as time to loss of Engel Class IA status (p = 0.034). Further analysis revealed a higher occurrence of seizures solely during attempted medication withdrawal in the mtg-SelAH group than in the STL group (p = 0.016). The authors found no significant difference in the effect of surgery type on any cognitive and most psychiatric variables. Standard temporal lobectomy was associated with significantly higher scores on assessment of postsurgical paranoia (p = 0.048).

Conclusions

Overall, few differences in seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcome were found between STL and mtg-SelAH on long-term follow-up. Longer exposure to medication side effects after mtg-SelAH may adversely affect quality of life but is unlikely to cause additional functional impairment. In patients with high levels of presurgical psychiatric disease, mtg-SelAH may be the preferred surgery type.