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Serge Makarenko, Vincent Ye, Peter A. Gooderham and Ryojo Akagami


Historically, descriptions of visual acuity and visual field change following intracranial procedures have been very rudimentary. Clinicians and researchers have often used basic descriptions, such as “improved,” “worsened,” and “unchanged,” to describe outcomes following resections of tumors affecting the optic apparatus. These descriptors are vague, difficult to quantify, and challenging to apply in a clinical perspective. Several groups have attempted to combine visual acuity and visual fields into a single assessment score, but these are not user-friendly. The authors present a novel way to describe a patient’s visual function as a combination of visual acuity and visual field assessment that is simple to use and can be used by surgeons and researchers to gauge visual outcomes following tumor resection.


Visual acuity and visual fields were combined into 3 categories designed around the definitions of legal blindness and fitness to drive in Canada. The authors then applied the scale (the Unified Visual Function Scale, or UVFS) to their previously published case series of perisellar meningiomas to document and test overall visual outcomes for patients undergoing tumor resection. The results were compared with previously documented visual loss scales in the literature.


Using the UVFS the authors were able to capture the overall visual change; the scale was sensitive enough to define the overall visual improvement or worsening quantitatively, using categories that are clinically relevant and understandable.


The UVFS is a robust way to assess a patient’s vision, combining visual fields and acuity. The implementation of pre- and postoperative assessment is sensitive enough to assess overall change while also providing clinically relevant information for surgeons, and allows for comparisons between treatment groups.

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Christopher R. Honey, Peter Gooderham, Murray Morrison and Zurab Ivanishvili

The authors describe a novel cranial neuropathy manifesting with life-threatening episodic hemilaryngopharyngeal spasm (HELPS). A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of intermittent throat contractions, escalating to life-threatening respiratory distress. Botulinum toxin injections into her right vocal cord reduced the severity of her spasms, but the episodes continued to occur. MRI demonstrated a possible neurovascular conflict involving the cranial nerve IX–X complex and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Microvascular decompression of the upper rootlets of the vagal nerve eliminated her HELPS without complication. The authors propose a mechanism of HELPS implicating isolated involvement of the upper motor rootlets of the vagus nerve.