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Katharina Hess, Dorothee Cäcilia Spille, Alborz Adeli, Peter B. Sporns, Caroline Brokinkel, Oliver Grauer, Christian Mawrin, Walter Stummer, Werner Paulus and Benjamin Brokinkel

OBJECTIVE

Identification of risk factors for perioperative epilepsy remains crucial in the care of patients with meningioma. Moreover, associations of brain invasion with clinical and radiological variables have been largely unexplored. The authors hypothesized that invasion of the cortex and subsequent increased edema facilitate seizures, and they compared radiological data and perioperative seizures in patients with brain-invasive or noninvasive meningioma.

METHODS

Correlations of brain invasion with tumor and edema volumes and preoperative and postoperative seizures were analyzed in univariate and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS

Totals of 108 (61%) females and 68 (39%) males with a median age of 60 years and harboring totals of 92 (52%) grade I, 79 (45%) grade II, and 5 (3%) grade III tumors were included. Brain invasion was found in 38 (22%) patients and was absent in 138 (78%) patients. The tumors were located at the convexity in 72 (41%) patients, at the falx cerebri in 26 (15%), at the skull base in 69 (39%), in the posterior fossa in 7 (4%), and in the ventricle in 2 (1%); the median tumor and edema volumes were 13.73 cm3 (range 0.81–162.22 cm3) and 1.38 cm3 (range 0.00–355.80 cm3), respectively. As expected, edema volume increased with rising tumor volume (p < 0.001). Brain invasion was independent of tumor volume (p = 0.176) but strongly correlated with edema volume (p < 0.001). The mean edema volume in noninvasive tumors was 33.0 cm3, but in invasive tumors, it was 130.7 cm3 (p = 0.008). The frequency of preoperative seizures was independent of the patients’ age, sex, and tumor location; however, the frequency was 32% (n = 12) in patients with invasive meningioma and 15% (n = 21) in those with noninvasive meningioma (p = 0.033). In contrast, the probability of detecting brain invasion microscopically was increased more than 2-fold in patients with a history of preoperative seizures (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.13–5.88; p = 0.025). In univariate analyses, the rate of preoperative seizures correlated slightly with tumor volume (p = 0.049) but strongly with edema volume (p = 0.014), whereas seizure semiology was found to be independent of brain invasion (p = 0.211). In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, tumor location, tumor and edema volumes, and WHO grade, rising tumor volume (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03; p = 0.042) and especially brain invasion (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.52–18.15; p = 0.009) were identified as independent predictors of preoperative seizures. Nine (5%) patients developed new seizures within a median follow-up time of 15 months after surgery. Development of postoperative epilepsy was independent of all clinical variables, including Simpson grade (p = 0.133), tumor location (p = 0.936), brain invasion (p = 0.408), and preoperative edema volume (p = 0.081), but was correlated with increasing preoperative tumor volume (p = 0.004). Postoperative seizure-free rates were similar among patients with invasive and those with noninvasive meningioma (p = 0.372).

CONCLUSIONS

Brain invasion was identified as a new and strong predictor for preoperative, but not postoperative, seizures. Although also associated with increased peritumoral edema, seizures in patients with invasive meningioma might be facilitated substantially by cortical invasion itself. Consideration of seizures in consultations between the neurosurgeon and neuropathologist can improve the microscopic detection of brain invasion.

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Michael Schwake, Stephanie Schipmann, Michael Müther, Louise Stögbauer, Uta Hanning, Peter B. Sporns, Christian Ewelt, Rainer Dziewas, Jens Minnerup, Markus Holling and Walter Stummer

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomies (DCs) are performed on patients suffering large cerebral infarctions. The efficacy of this procedure has been demonstrated in several trials. In some cases, however, this procedure alone is not sufficient and patients still suffer refractory elevations of intracranial pressure (ICP). The goal of this study was to determine whether resection of infarcted tissue, termed strokectomy, performed as a second-look procedure after DC, improves outcome in selected cases.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively evaluated data of patients who underwent a DC due to a cerebral infarction at their institution from 2009 to 2016, including patients who underwent a strokectomy procedure after DC. Clinical records, imaging data, outcome scores, and neurological symptoms were analyzed, and clinical outcomes and mortality rates in the strokectomy group were compared to those for similar patients in recently published randomized controlled trials.

RESULTS

Of 198 patients who underwent DC due to cerebral infarction, 12 patients underwent strokectomy as a second surgical procedure, with a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 19 for patients with versus 16 for those without secondary strokectomy (p = 0.029). Either refractory increases of ICP > 20 mm Hg or dilated pupils in addition to herniation visible on CT images were triggers for strokectomy surgery. Ten of 12 (83%) patients had infarctions in more than one territory (p < 0.001). After 12 months, 43% of patients had a good outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (≤ 3). In the subgroup of patients suffering infarctions in more than one vascular territory, functional outcome after 12 months was better (mRS ≤ 3 in 40% of patients in comparison to 9%; p = 0.027). A 1:3 case-control analysis matched to age, side of infarction, sex, and vascular territory confirmed these results (mRS ≤ 3, 42% in comparison to 11%; p = 0.032). Age, NIHSS score on admission, and number of vascular territories involved were identified as risk factors in multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). Patients in the strokectomy group had more infections (p < 0.001). According to these results, the authors developed a scale (Münster Stroke Score, 0–6 points) to predict whether patients might benefit from additional strokectomy. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (p < 0.001). The authors recommend a Münster Stroke Score of ≥ 3 as a cutoff, with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 66%, for predicting benefit from strokectomy.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study in comparison to former studies, mortality rates were lower and clinical outcome was comparable to that of previously published trials regarding large cerebral infarctions. Second surgery including strokectomy may help achieve better outcomes, especially in cases of infarction of more than one vascular territory.