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Shikun Zhan, Fafa Sun, Yixin Pan, Wei Liu, Peng Huang, Chunyan Cao, Jing Zhang, Dianyou Li, and Bomin Sun

OBJECTIVE

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of primary Meige syndrome. However, assessments of its efficacy and safety have been limited to several case reports and small studies.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in 15 patients with primary Meige syndrome who responded poorly to medical treatments or botulinum toxin injections. Using the movement and disability subscores of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, the authors evaluated the severity of patients’ dystonia and related before surgery and at final follow-up during neurostimulation. The movement scale was assessed based on preoperative and postoperative video documentation by an independent rater who was unaware of each patient’s neurostimulation status. Quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey.

RESULTS

The dystonia movement subscores in 14 consecutive patients improved from 19.3 ± 7.6 (mean ± standard deviation) before surgery to 5.5 ± 4.5 at final follow-up (28.5 ± 16.5 months), with a mean improvement of 74% (p < 0.05). The disability subscore improved from 15.6 ± 4.9 before surgery to 6.1 ± 3.5 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). In addition, the postoperative SF-36 scores increased markedly over those at baseline. The authors also found that bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus immediately improved patient symptoms after stimulation and required lower stimulation parameters than those needed for pallidal deep brain stimulation for primary Meige syndrome. Four adverse events occurred in 3 patients; all of these events resolved without permanent sequelae.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings provide further evidence to support the long-term efficacy and safety of subthalamic nucleus stimulation as an alternative treatment for patients with medically intractable Meige syndrome.

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Yu Sun, Li-Xin Wang, Lei Wang, Si-Xin Sun, Xiao-Jian Cao, Peng Wang, and Li Feng

Object

The effectiveness of the topical application of mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in preventing peridural adhesion after laminectomy was compared in this study.

Methods

Laminectomies were performed at L-1 in 30 rats. Cotton pads soaked with 0.1 mg/ml MMC, 25 mg/ml 5FU, or 9 mg/ml saline (control) were applied to the operative sites. To evaluate neurological deficits pre- and postoperatively, somatosensory evoked potentials were monitored and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion test was performed. Four weeks postlaminectomy the rats were killed, and peridural scar adhesion was evaluated histologically. The level of hydroxyproline, the area of peridural scar tissue, and the number of fibroblasts were determined. The degree of peridural adhesion was classified according to the Rydell standard.

Results

No obvious adhesion formed in the rats in the MMC group, but severe peridural adhesions were found in those in the 5FU and control groups. The content of hydroxyproline, the area of peridural scar tissue, and the number of fibroblasts in the MMC group were significantly lower than those in the 5FU and control groups.

Conclusions

The topical application of MMC rather than 5FU may be a successful method of preventing post-laminectomy peridural adhesions.

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Xiong Xiao, Lu Kong, Changcun Pan, Peng Zhang, Xin Chen, Tao Sun, Mingran Wang, Hui Qiao, Zhen Wu, Junting Zhang, and Liwei Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have the ability to noninvasively visualize changes in white matter tracts, as well as their relationships with lesions and other structures. DTI/DTT has been increasingly used to improve the safety and results of surgical treatment for lesions in eloquent areas, such as brainstem cavernous malformations. This study aimed to investigate the application value of DTI/DTT in brainstem glioma surgery and to validate the spatial accuracy of reconstructed corticospinal tracts (CSTs).

METHODS

A retrospective analysis was performed on 54 patients with brainstem gliomas who had undergone surgery from January 2016 to December 2018 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital. All patients underwent preoperative DTI and tumor resection with the assistance of DTT-merged neuronavigation and electrophysiological monitoring. Preoperative conventional MRI and DTI data were collected, and the muscle strength and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score before and after surgery were measured. The surgical plan was created with the assistance of DTI/DTT findings. The accuracy of DTI/DTT was validated by performing direct subcortical stimulation (DsCS) intraoperatively. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between quantitative parameters of DTI/DTT (such as the CST score and tumor-to-CST distance [TCD]) and postoperative muscle strength and mRS scores.

RESULTS

Among the 54 patients, 6 had normal bilateral CSTs, 12 patients had unilateral CST impairments, and 36 had bilateral CSTs involved. The most common changes in the CSTs were deformation (n = 29), followed by deviation (n = 28) and interruption (n = 27). The surgical approach was changed in 18 cases (33.3%) after accounting for the DTI/DTT results. Among 55 CSTs on which DsCS was performed, 46 (83.6%) were validated as spatially accurate by DsCS. The CST score and TCD were significantly correlated with postoperative muscle strength (r = −0.395, p < 0.001, and r = 0.275, p = 0.004, respectively) and postoperative mRS score (r = 0.430, p = 0.001, and r = −0.329, p = 0.015, respectively). The CST score was independently linearly associated with postoperative muscle strength (t = −2.461, p = 0.016) and the postoperative mRS score (t = 2.052, p = 0.046).

CONCLUSIONS

DTI/DTT is a valuable tool in the surgical management of brainstem gliomas. With good accuracy, it can help optimize surgical planning, guide tumor resection, and predict the postoperative muscle strength and postoperative quality of life of patients.

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Yijie Lai, Peng Huang, Chencheng Zhang, Liangyun Hu, ME, Zhengdao Deng, Dianyou Li, Bomin Sun, Wei Liu, and Shikun Zhan

OBJECTIVE

Selective peripheral denervation (SPD) is a widely accepted surgery for medically refractory cervical dystonia (CD), but when SPD has failed, the available approaches are limited. The authors investigated the results from a cohort of CD patients treated with unilateral pallidotomy after unsatisfactory SPD.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed patients with primary CD who underwent unilateral pallidotomy after SPD between April 2007 and August 2019. The Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) was used to evaluate symptom severity before surgery, 7 days postsurgery, 3 months postsurgery, and at the last follow-up. TWSTRS subscores for disability and pain and the 24-item Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24) were used to assess quality of life.

RESULTS

At a mean final follow-up of 5 years, TWSTRS severity subscores and total scores were significantly improved (n = 12, mean improvement 57.3% and 62.3%, respectively, p = 0.0022 and p = 0.0022), and 8 of 12 patients (66.7%) were characterized as responders (improvement ≥ 25%). Patients with rotation symptoms before pallidotomy showed greater improvement in TWSTRS severity subscores than those who did not (p = 0.049). The most common adverse event was mild upper-limb weakness (n = 3). Patients’ quality of life was also improved.

CONCLUSIONS

Unilateral pallidotomy seems to offer an effective and safe option for patients with CD who have otherwise experienced limited benefits from SPD.

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Even Angell-Petersen, Signe Spetalen, Steen J. Madsen, Chung-Ho Sun, Qian Peng, Stephen W. Carper, Mouldy Sioud, and Henry Hirschberg

Object

Failure of treatment for high-grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of resection, indicating that a more aggressive local therapy could be beneficial. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local treatment involving the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug, in this case aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The effect depends on the total light energy delivered to the target tissue, but may also be influenced by the rate of light delivery.

Methods

In vitro experiments showed that the sensitivity to ALA PDT of BT4C multicellular tumor spheroids depended on the rate of light delivery (fluence rate). The BT4C tumors were established intracranially in BD-IX rats. Microfluorometry of frozen tissue sections showed that photosensitization is produced with better than 200:1 tumor/normal tissue selectivity after ALA injection. Four hours after intraperitoneal ALA injection (125 mg/kg), 26 J of 632 nm light was delivered interstitially over 15 (high fluence rate) or 90 (low fluence rate) minutes. Histological examination of animals treated 14 days after tumor induction demonstrated extensive tumor necrosis after low-fluence-rate PDT, but hardly any necrosis after high-fluence-rate treatment. Neutrophil infiltration in tumor tissue was increased by PDT, but was similar for both treatment regimens. Low-fluence-rate PDT administered 9 days after tumor induction resulted in statistically significant prolongation of survival for treated rats compared with nontreated control animals.

Conclusions

Treatment with ALA PDT induced pronounced necrosis in tumors only if the light was delivered at a low rate. The treatment prolonged the survival for tumor-bearing animals.

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Dinal Jayasekera, Justin K. Zhang, Jacob Blum, Rachel Jakes, Peng Sun, Saad Javeed, Jacob K. Greenberg, Sheng-Kwei Song, and Wilson Z. Ray

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of chronic spinal cord injury, a significant public health problem. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique widely used to assess CNS tissue pathology and is increasingly used in CSM. However, DTI lacks the needed accuracy, precision, and recall to image pathologies of spinal cord injury as the disease progresses. Thus, the authors used diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to delineate white matter injury more accurately in the setting of spinal cord compression. It was hypothesized that the profiles of multiple DBSI metrics can serve as imaging outcome predictors to accurately predict a patient’s response to therapy and his or her long-term prognosis. This hypothesis was tested by using DBSI metrics as input features in a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm.

METHODS

Fifty patients with CSM and 20 healthy controls were recruited to receive diffusion-weighted MRI examinations. All spinal cord white matter was identified as the region of interest (ROI). DBSI and DTI metrics were extracted from all voxels in the ROI and the median value of each patient was used in analyses. An SVM with optimized hyperparameters was trained using clinical and imaging metrics separately and collectively to predict patient outcomes. Patient outcomes were determined by calculating changes between pre- and postoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale scores.

RESULTS

Accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score were reported for each SVM iteration. The highest performance was observed when a combination of clinical and DBSI metrics was used to train an SVM. When assessing patient outcomes using mJOA scale scores, the SVM trained with clinical and DBSI metrics achieved accuracy and an area under the curve of 88.1% and 0.95, compared with 66.7% and 0.65, respectively, when clinical and DTI metrics were used together.

CONCLUSIONS

The accuracy and efficacy of the SVM incorporating clinical and DBSI metrics show promise for clinical applications in predicting patient outcomes. These results suggest that DBSI metrics, along with the clinical presentation, could serve as a surrogate in prognosticating outcomes of patients with CSM.

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Tao Zhang, Zhenhua Li, Weiming Gong, Bingwei Sun, Shuheng Liu, Kai Zhang, Dezhen Yin, Peng Xu, and Tanghong Jia

Object.

The authors assessed the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)–guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue to treat meningeal cysts of the sacral spine in patients with back pain, and evaluated the necessity for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) aspiration before glue injection.

Methods.

Of the 31 patients in this study, 15 underwent injection of fibrin glue under CT guidance after aspiration of more than 15 ml of CSF (Group A), and 16 patients were treated with the glue but without CSF aspiration (Group B). Clinical results were evaluated after an average of 23 months of follow-up, and changes on the imaging studies were also evaluated. The clinical outcome and postoperative complications were analyzed.

Results.

All 31 patients experienced resolution or marked improvement of symptoms for as long as 28 months after fibrin glue therapy. No patient experienced recurrence of symptoms during the follow-up interval. The postoperative pain relief was statistically significant (p < 0.001) according to evaluations in which a 100-mm visual analog pain scale was used. There were no statistical differences between the two groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions.

Percutaneous CT-guided fibrin glue therapy for sacral arachnoid cysts may be a definitive therapy. It is unnecessary to aspirate the CSF before injection of the fibrin glue.

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Yu-Wen Cheng, Peng-Yuan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Chih-Chang Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang, and Henrich Cheng