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Risheng Xu, Joshua Materi, Divyaansh Raj, Safwan Alomari, Yuanxuan Xia, Sumil K. Nair, Pavan P. Shah, Nivedha Kannapadi, Timothy Kim, Judy Huang, Chetan Bettegowda, and Michael Lim

OBJECTIVE

Internal neurolysis (IN) and intraoperative glycerin rhizotomy (ioGR) are emerging surgical options for patients with trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular contact. The objective of this study was to compare the neurological outcomes of patients who underwent IN with those of patients who underwent ioGR.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent IN or ioGR for trigeminal neuralgia at our institution. Patient demographic characteristics and immediate postoperative outcomes, as well as long-term neurological outcomes, were compared.

RESULTS

Of 1044 patients who underwent open surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, 56 patients underwent IN and 91 underwent ioGR. Of these 147 patients, 37 had no evidence of intraoperative neurovascular conflict. All patients who underwent IN and 96.7% of patients who underwent ioGR had immediate postoperative pain relief. At last follow-up, patients who underwent IN had lower Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scores (p = 0.05), better BNI facial numbness scores (p < 0.01), and a greater degree of pain improvement (p = 0.05) compared with those who underwent ioGR. Patients who underwent IN also had significantly lower rates of symptomatic pain recurrence (p < 0.01) at last follow-up over an average of 9.5 months.

CONCLUSIONS

IN appears to provide patients with a greater degree of pain relief, lower rates of facial numbness, and lower rates of pain recurrence compared with ioGR. Future prospective studies will better characterize long-term pain recurrence and outcomes.

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Pavan P. Shah, Jennifer L. Franke, Ravi Medikonda, Christopher M. Jackson, Siddhartha Srivastava, John Choi, Patrick M. Forde, Julie R. Brahmer, David S. Ettinger, Josephine L. Feliciano, Benjamin P. Levy, Kristen A. Marrone, Jarushka Naidoo, Kristin J. Redmond, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, and Michael Lim

OBJECTIVE

Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common primary tumor to develop brain metastasis. Prognostic markers are needed to better determine survival after neurosurgical resection of intracranial disease. Given the importance of mutation subtyping in determining systemic therapy and overall prognosis of NSCLC, the authors examined the prognostic value of mutation status for postresection survival of patients with NSCLC brain metastasis.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases of NSCLC brain metastasis with available molecular testing data that were resected by a single surgeon at a single academic center from January 2009 to February 2019. Mutation status, demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and treatments were analyzed. Association between predictive variables and overall survival after neurosurgery was determined with Cox regression.

RESULTS

Of the included patients (n = 84), 40% were male, 76% were smokers, the mean ± SD Karnofsky Performance Status was 85 ± 14, and the mean ± SD age at surgery was 63 ± 11 years. In total, 23%, 26%, and 4% of patients had EGFR, KRAS, and ALK/ROS1 alterations, respectively. On multivariate analysis, survival of patients with EGFR (HR 0.495, p = 0.0672) and KRAS (HR 1.380, p = 0.3617) mutations were not significantly different from survival of patients with wild-type (WT) tumor. However, the subgroup of patients with EGFR mutation who also received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy had significantly prolonged survival (HR 0.421, p = 0.0471). In addition, postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (HR 0.409, p = 0.0177) and resected tumor diameter < 3 cm (HR 0.431, p = 0.0146) were also significantly associated with prolonged survival, but Graded Prognostic Assessment score ≤ 1.0 (HR 2.269, p = 0.0364) was significantly associated with shortened survival.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with EGFR mutation who receive TKI therapy may have better survival after resection of brain metastasis than patients with WT tumor. These results may inform counseling and decision-making regarding the appropriateness of resection of NSCLC brain metastasis.

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Ravi Medikonda, John Choi, Ayush Pant, Laura Saleh, Denis Routkevitch, Luqing Tong, Zineb Belcaid, Young Hoon Kim, Christopher M. Jackson, Christina Jackson, Dimitrios Mathios, Yuanxuan Xia, Pavan P. Shah, Kisha Patel, Timothy Kim, Siddhartha Srivastava, Sakibul Huq, Jeff Ehresman, Zach Pennington, Betty Tyler, Henry Brem, and Michael Lim

OBJECTIVE

Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) have shown promise for the treatment of cancers such as melanoma, but results for glioblastoma (GBM) have been disappointing thus far. It has been suggested that GBM has multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression, indicating a need for combinatorial treatment strategies. It is well understood that GBM increases glutamate in the tumor microenvironment (TME); however, the significance of this is not well understood. The authors posit that glutamate upregulation in the GBM TME is immunosuppressive. The authors utilized a novel glutamate modulator, BHV-4157, to determine synergy between glutamate modulation and the well-established anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for GBM.

METHODS

C57BL/6J mice were intracranially implanted with luciferase-tagged GL261 glioma cells. Mice were randomly assigned to the control, anti-PD-1, BHV-4157, or combination anti-PD-1 plus BHV-4157 treatment arms, and median overall survival was assessed. In vivo microdialysis was performed at the tumor site with administration of BHV-4157. Intratumoral immune cell populations were characterized with immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.

RESULTS

The BHV-4157 treatment arm demonstrated improved survival compared with the control arm (p < 0.0001). Microdialysis demonstrated that glutamate concentration in TME significantly decreased after BHV-4157 administration. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry demonstrated increased CD4+ T cells and decreased Foxp3+ T cells in mice that received BHV-4157 treatment. No survival benefit was observed when CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were depleted in mice prior to BHV-4157 administration (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors showed synergy between anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and glutamate modulation. The authors provide a possible mechanism for this synergistic benefit by showing that BHV-4157 relies on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This study sheds light on the role of excess glutamate in GBM and provides a basis for further exploring combinatorial approaches for the treatment of this disease.