Pallidal stimulation has been the usual surgical treatment for dystonia in the last decades. The continuous investigation of the physiopathology and the motor pathways involved leads to the search for complementary targets to improve results. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old woman who had suffered from idiopathic hemidystonia with hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movements for 11 years, and who was treated with deep brain stimulation. A brief literature review is also provided. The globus pallidus internus and the ventral intermediate/ventral oral posterior complex of the thalamus were stimulated separately and simultaneously for 3 months and compared using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and the Global Dystonia Severity Rating Scale, with a 3.5-year follow-up. The synergism of multiple-target stimulation resulted in a complete improvement of the mixed dystonic symptoms.
Victor Goulenko, Paulo Luiz da Costa Cruz and Paulo Niemeyer Filho
Daniel D. Cavalcanti and Paulo Niemeyer Filho
The pons is the preferred location for cavernous malformations in the brainstem. When these lesions do not surface, it is critical to select the optimal safe entry zone to reduce morbidity.1–3 In this video, we demonstrate in a stepwise manner the medial suboccipital craniotomy and the telovelar approach performed in a lateral decubitus position. They were used to successfully resect a pontine cavernous malformation in a centroposterior location in a 19-year-old patient with diplopia, right-sided numbness, and imbalance. The paramedian supracollicular safe entry zone was used once the lesion did not reach the ependymal surface.2,3 Late magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated total resection and the patient was neurologically intact after 3 months of follow-up. The approach is also demonstrated in a cadaveric dissection to better illustrate all steps.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ChArkxA8kig.