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Paul A. Northcott, James T. Rutka and Michael D. Taylor

Advances in the field of genomics have recently enabled the unprecedented characterization of the cancer genome, providing novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying malignancies in humans. The application of high-resolution microarray platforms to the study of medulloblastoma has revealed new oncogenes and tumor suppressors and has implicated changes in DNA copy number, gene expression, and methylation state in its etiology. Additionally, the integration of medulloblastoma genomics with patient clinical data has confirmed molecular markers of prognostic significance and highlighted the potential utility of molecular disease stratification. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies promises to greatly transform our understanding of medulloblastoma pathogenesis in the next few years, permitting comprehensive analyses of all aspects of the genome and increasing the likelihood that genomic medicine will become part of the routine diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma.