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Patrick Beauchesne, Claude Soler and Jean-François Mosnier

✓ The authors report on a case of right temporal glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that metastasized to multiple bone regions (dorsolumbar vertebrae and iliac bone) 8 months after initial diagnosis, despite combined radio- and chemotherapy. Results of a whole-bone single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) study using the imaging agent Sestamibi (MIBI) revealed extracranial metastases from the GBM. A magnetic resonance imaging study of the dorsolumbar spinal region completed the radiological investigation. Cells immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein were observed in a specimen obtained from the right iliac bone. Postmortem examination confirmed metastasis to extracranial bone and revealed two other metastatic localizations in the lung and heart. This is the first reported case of extracranial bone metastasis from a GBM demonstrated on a whole-bone MIBI SPECT scan. In patients with malignant glioma and lower-back pain (especially prolonged pain), bone metastasis, although uncommon, does occasionally occur and its possibility should be investigated; a MIBI SPECT study may prove useful in this regard.

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Cole A. Giller, Patrick Mornet and Jean-François Moreau

Although image-based human stereotaxis began with Spiegel and Wycis in 1947, the major principles of radiographic stereotaxis were formulated 50 years earlier by the French scientific photographer Gaston Contremoulins. In 1897, frustrated by the high morbidity of bullet extraction from the brain, the Parisian surgeon Charles Rémy asked Contremoulins to devise a method for bullet localization using the then new technology of x-rays. In doing so, Contremoulins conceived of many of the modern principles of stereotaxis, including the use of a reference frame, radiopaque fiducials for registration, images to locate the target in relation to the frame, phantom devices to locate the target in relation to the fiducial marks, and the use of an adjustable pointer to guide the surgical approach.

Contremoulins' ideas did not emerge from science or medicine, but instead were inspired by his training in the fine arts. Had he been a physician instead of an artist, he might have never discovered his extraordinary methods.

Contremoulins' “compass” and its variants enjoyed great success during World War I, but were abandoned by 1920 for simpler methods. Although Contremoulins was one of the most eminent radiographers in France, he was not a physician, and his personality was uncompromising. By 1940, both he and his methods were forgotten. It was not until 1988 that he was rediscovered by Moreau while reviewing the history of French radiology, and chronicled by Mornet in his extensive biography.

The authors examine Contremoulins' stereotactic methods in historical context, describe the details of his devices, relate his discoveries to his training in the fine arts, and discuss how his prescient formulation of stereotaxis was forgotten for more than half a century.

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Editorial

Parasellar compartment

Vinko V. Dolenc

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Cédric Barrey, Patrick Mertens, Claude Rumelhart, François Cotton, Jérôme Jund and Gilles Perrin

Object. The purpose of this study was to assess human cervical spine pullout force after lateral mass fixation involving two different techniques: the Roy-Camille and the Magerl techniques. Although such comparisons have been conducted previously, because of the heterogeneity of results and the importance of this procedure in clinical practice, it is essential to have data derived from a prospective and randomized biomechanical study involving a sufficient sample of human cervical spines. The authors also evaluated the influence of the sex, the vertebral level, the bone mineral density (BMD), the length of bone purchase, and the thickness of the anterior cortical purchase.

Methods. Twenty-one adult cervical spines were harvested from fresh human cadavers. Computerized tomography was performed before and after placing 3.5-mm titanium lateral mass screws from C-3 to C-6. Pullout forces were evaluated using a material testing machine. The load was applied until the pullout of the screw was observed. A total of 152 pullout tests were available, 76 for each type of screw fixation. The statistical analysis was mainly performed using the Kaplan—Meier survival method.

The mean pullout force was 266 ± 124 N for the Roy-Camille technique and 231 ± 94 N for the Magerl technique (p < 0.025). For the C3–4 specimen group, Roy-Camille screws were demonstrated to exert a significantly higher resistance to pullout forces (299 ± 114 N) compared with Magerl screws (242 ± 97 N), whereas no difference was found between the two techniques for the C5–6 specimen group (Roy-Camille 236 ± 122 N and Magerl 220 ± 86 N). Independent of the procedure, pullout strengths were greater at the C3–4 level (271 ± 114 N) than the C5–6 level (228 ± 105 N) (p < 0.05).

No significant correlation between the cancellous BMD, the thickness of the anterior cortical purchase, the length of bone purchase, and maximal pullout forces was found for either technique.

Conclusions. The difference between pullout forces associated with the Roy-Camille and the Magerl techniques was not as significant as has been previously suggested in the literature. It was interesting to note the influence of the vertebral level: Roy-Camille screws demonstrated greater pullout strength (23%) at the C3–4 vertebral level than Magerl screws but no significant difference between the techniques was observed at C5–6.

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Jean Raymond, François Guilbert, Alain Weill and Daniel Roy

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Patrick François, Nadine Travers, Emmanuel Lescanne, Brigitte Arbeille, Michel Jan and Stéphane Velut

Object

The dura mater has 2 dural layers: the endosteal layer (outer layer), which is firmly attached to the bone, and the meningeal layer (inner layer), which directly covers the brain. These 2 dural layers join together in the middle temporal fossa or the convexity and separate into the orbital, lateral sellar compartment (LSC), or spinal epidural space to form the extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC). The aim of this work was to anatomically verify the concept of the EDNAC by using electron microscopy.

Methods

The authors studied the cadaveric heads obtained from 13 adults. Ten of the specimens (or 20 perisellar areas) were injected with colored latex and fixed in formalin. They carefully removed each brain to allow a superior approach to the perisellar area. The 3 other specimens were studied by microscopic and ultrastructural methods to describe the EDNAC in the perisellar area. Special attention was paid to the dural layers surrounding the perisellar area. The authors studied the anatomy of the meningeal architecture of the LSC, the petroclival venous confluence, the orbit, and the trigeminal cave. After dissection, the authors took photographs of the dural layers with the aid of optical magnification. The 3 remaining heads, obtained from fresh cadavers, were prepared for electron microscopic study.

Results

The EDNAC is limited by the endosteal layer and the meningeal layer and contains fat and/or venous blood. The endosteal layer and meningeal layer were not identical on electron microscopy; this finding can be readily related to the histology of the meninges.

Conclusions

In this study, the authors demonstrated the existence of the EDNAC concept in the perisellar area by using dissected cadaveric heads and verified the reality of the concept of the meningeal layer with electron microscopy. These findings clearly demonstrated the existence of the EDNAC, a notion that has generally been accepted but never demonstrated microscopically.

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Patrick François, Ilyess Zemmoura, Anne Marie Bergemer Fouquet, Michel Jan and Stéphane Velut

Angiolipomas are rare tumors of the CNS that most frequently develop in the orbit, the cavernous space, and the epidural space of the spine. The authors report the case of a patient who presented with an angiolipoma of the cavernous space. Using data from the published literature and an experimental anatomical approach, they demonstrate that the cavernous space contains adipose tissue. Consequently, they suggest that angiolipomas constitute a characteristic tumor illustrating the interperiosteo-dural concept.

The authors report the clinical, radiological, and histological data of a patient who presented with a tumor of the cavernous space. In addition, they prepared 2 encephalic extremities (4 cavernous spaces) using a special anatomical preparation consisting of an injection of colored neoprene latex followed by a 6-month immersion in a formaldehyde solution enriched with hydrogen peroxide to soften the bone structures (coronal sections) while leaving the fat in the cavernous space intact.

This case report corroborates previously published clinical data and shows that the tumor was a hamartoma comprising mature fat cells associated with vascular proliferation. The tumor developed in the cavernous space, which is an interperiosteo-dural space extending from the sphenoid periosteum (osteoperiosteal layer) to the superior and lateral walls of the cavernous space (encephalic layer). This space represents an anatomical continuum extending from the coccyx to the orbit: the interperiosteo-dural concept. It contains fat tissue that is abundant at the level of the orbit and the epidural spinal space and sparser at the level of the cavernous spaces, as was shown in our anatomical study.

The authors suggest that angiolipomas represent a characteristic tumor that illustrates the interperiosteo-dural concept because they essentially develop in the fat tissue contained in these spaces.

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François Proust, Patrick Toussaint, José Garniéri, Didier Hannequin, Daniel Legars, Jean-Pierre Houtteville and Pierre Fréger

Object. The exceptional pediatric aneurysm can be distinguished from its adult counterpart by its location and size; however patient outcomes remain difficult to evaluate based on the published literature.

Methods. Twenty-two children, all consecutively treated in three neurosurgery departments, were included in this study. Each patient's preoperative status was determined according to the Hunt and Hess classification. Routine computerized tomography scanning and angiography were performed in all children on the 10th postoperative day. Each patient's clinical status was evaluated 2 to 10 years postoperatively by applying the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).

Twenty-one children presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and one child harbored an asymptomatic giant aneurysm. Thirteen patients were in good preoperative grade (Hunt and Hess Grades I to III) and eight in poor preoperative grade (Hunt and Hess Grade IV or V). The symptomatic aneurysms were located on the internal carotid artery bifurcation (36.4%); middle cerebral artery (36.4%), half of which were found on the distal portion; anterior communicating artery (18.2%); and within the vertebrobasilar system (9.1%). A giant aneurysm was observed in 14% of patients. Overall outcome was favorable (GOS Score 5) in 14 children (63.6%) and death occurred in five (22.7%). Causes of unfavorable outcome included the initial SAH in four children, a complication in procedure in three children, and edema in one child.

Conclusions. Pediatric aneurysms have a specific distribution unlike that of aneurysms in the adult population. The incidence of giant aneurysms and outcomes were similar to those in the adult population. The major cause of poor outcome was the initial SAH, in particular, the high proportion of rebleeding possibly due to a delay in diagnosis.

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Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Anne F. Mannion, Serge Marbacher, Patrick A. Dolp, Tamas F. Fekete, Dezsö Jeszenszky and François Porchet

Object

Both anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion (ACCF) are used to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy; however, there is currently no evidence for the superiority of one over the other in terms of patient-rated outcomes. This comparative effectiveness study compared the patient-rated and radiographic outcomes of 2-level ACDF versus 1-level ACCF.

Methods

This single-center study was nested within the EuroSpine Spine Tango data acquisition system. Inclusion criteria were the following: consecutive patients presenting with signs of cervical spondylotic myelopathy who underwent 2-level ACDF or 1-level ACCF between 2004 and 2011. Before and 12 months after surgery, patients completed the multidimensional Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) and also rated global treatment outcome and satisfaction with care on 5-point Likert scales. Cervical lordosis, segmental height, and fusion rate were assessed radiographically before and immediately after surgery and at the last follow-up (20.4 ± 13.7 months, mean ± SD).

Results

In total, 118 consecutive patients (80 in the ACDF group and 38 in the ACCF group) were included. Age, sex, comorbidity, baseline symptoms, baseline radiographic data, operation duration, and complication rates did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Blood loss was significantly (p < 0.04) lower in the ACDF group. Postoperative mean segmental height was significantly (p = 0.0006) greater for ACDF (42.0 ± 4.2 mm, mean ± SD) than for ACCF (39.0 ± 4.0 mm), and global average lordosis improved to a significantly (p = 0.003) greater extent in ACDF (by 1.6° ± 4.1°) than in ACCF (by −1.0° ± 4.0°). Fusion rates for ACDF were 97.5% and for ACCF were 94.7% (p = 0.59). The 12-month patient-rated outcomes did not differ significantly between ACDF and ACCF: 82.4% and 68.6% had a good global outcome (operation helped/helped a lot) (p = 0.10), 86.5% and 82.9% were satisfied/very satisfied with care (p = 0.62), and the reduction in the multidimensional COMI was 2.8 ± 2.7 and 2.2 ± 3 points (p = 0.30), respectively. The postoperative increase in lordosis angle showed low but significant correlations with the improvement in arm pain (r = 0.25, p = 0.014), highest pain (r = 0.25, p = 0.013), and function (r = 0.24, p = 0.016).

Conclusions

Both ACDF and ACCF are safe and effective in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, indicated by similarly good patient-rated outcomes 1 year after surgery. This precludes any conclusions regarding the superiority of one technique over the other, although it should be noted that ACDF resulted in less blood loss and greater improvements in cervical lordosis and segmental height than ACCF. Patients with improved lordosis angle had a better clinical outcome.

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Steven E. Kornguth, Patrick A. Turski, William H. Perman, Ronald Schultz, Tom Kalinke, Richard Reale and Francois Raybaud

✓ Two different murine monoclonal anti-human T cell antibodies, that were coupled to gadolinium (Gd), bind specifically to human T lymphocyte cells implanted in canine brain. This binding was at a concentration of Gd sufficient to detect the implanted cells and to distinguish them from the surrounding brain tissue with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a field strength of 1.5 Tesla. These Gd-labeled immunoglobulin preparations did not bind bovine T cells at a concentration sufficient to be detected on MRI. A protein solution containing the immunoglobulins (100 µg), gelatin (2 mg), and bovine serum albumin (2.5 mg) was reacted with the dianhydride of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA); the DTPA serves as a metal chelator and as a protein crosslinking agent. The DTPA-protein complex was reacted with Gd chloride. There were approximately 10 DTPA residues per protein molecule in the modified protein mixture. Isolated human or bovine monocytes (approximately 12 million cells) were implanted in the brains of anesthetized dogs in a volume of 40 µl. The blood-brain barrier was then disrupted by the intra-arterial injection of hyperosmotic mannitol, and the Gd-labeled antibodies were injected through a catheter placed at the branch of the internal and external carotid arteries. The brains were imaged 48 to 72 hours later. The MRI scans revealed a markedly decreased T1 relaxation time with a high signal intensity (TE = 25 msec, TR = 200 msec) related to the human T cell implants. There was no evidence of decreased T1 at the site of the bovine T cells. Neither control murine gamma globulin coupled to Gd-DTPA nor anti-human T cell antibodies uncoupled to Gd modified the MRI contrast of the human T cells in the brain.