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Patrick C. Hsieh

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Patrick C. Hsieh and Ziya L. Gokaslan

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Patrick A. Sugrue, Patrick C. Hsieh, Christopher C. Getch and H. Hunt Batjer

Complications of tonsillar herniation associated with lumbar drainage have been reported in the literature. However, acutely symptomatic tonsillar herniation after intraoperative lumbar drainage is rare. The following case illustrates the risk associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in the setting of tonsillar herniation. The use of lumbar drainage during cranial surgery is a common practice for reducing intracranial pressure and enhancing exposure, but is not without complications. In addition to the complications of the insertion procedure itself, the change in pressure gradient between the intracranial and the suboccipital compartments is of key importance.

The authors present the case of a patient who underwent a subtemporal craniotomy for resection of mesial temporal cavernous malformation with intraoperative lumbar drainage. The patient had a preexisting, asymptomatic 4-mm Chiari malformation and progressive neurological deficits resulting from further cerebellar tonsillar herniation in the early postoperative period developed, which required a lumbar blood patch, decompressive suboccipital craniectomy, and C-1 laminectomy with duroplasty. After placement of the lumbar drain and subsequent CSF drainage, the change in CSF pressure gradient above and below the foramen magnum probably led to the herniation. Unfortunately, the patient has lasting neuropathic pain and cervical cord signal changes on MR images.

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Alexander Tuchman, Martin Pham and Patrick C. Hsieh

Object

Delayed or inappropriate treatment of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) can lead to serious morbidity or death. It is a rare event with significant variation in its causes, anatomical locations, and rate of progression. Traditionally the treatment of choice has involved emergency surgical evacuation and a prolonged course of antibiotics tailored to the offending pathogen. Recent publications have advocated antibiotic treatment without surgical decompression in select patient populations. Clearly defining those patients who can be safely treated in this manner remains in evolution. The authors review the current literature concerning the treatment and outcome of SEA to make recommendations concerning what population can be safely triaged to nonoperative management and the optimal timing of surgery.

Methods

A PubMed database search was performed using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings, to identify clinical studies reporting on the treatment and outcome of SEA.

Results

The literature review revealed 28 original case series containing at least 30 patients and reporting on treatment and outcome. All cohorts were deemed Class III evidence, and in all but two the data were obtained retrospectively. Based on the conclusions of these studies along with selected smaller studies and review articles, the authors present an evidence-based algorithm for selecting patients who may be safe candidates for nonoperative management.

Conclusions

Patients who are unable to undergo an operation, have a complete spinal cord injury more than 48 hours with low clinical or radiographic concern for an ascending lesion, or who are neurologically stable and lack risk factors for failure of medical management may be initially treated with antibiotics alone and close clinical monitoring. If initial medical management is to be undertaken the patient should be made aware that delayed neurological deterioration may not fully resolve even after prompt surgical treatment. Patients deemed good surgical candidates should receive their operation as soon as possible because the rate of clinical deterioration with SEA is notoriously unpredictable. Although patients tend to recover from neurological deficits after treatment of SEA, the time point when a neurological injury becomes irreversible is unknown, supporting emergency surgery in those patients with acute findings.

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Martin H. Pham, Andre M. Jakoi and Patrick C. Hsieh

Lumbar interbody fusion is an important technique for the treatment of degenerative disc disease and degenerative scoliosis. The oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) establishes a minimally invasive retroperitoneal exposure anterior to the psoas and lumbar plexus. In this video case presentation, the authors demonstrate the techniques of the OLIF at L5–S1 performed on a 69-year-old female with degenerative scoliosis as one component of an overall strategy for her deformity correction.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/VMUYWKLAl0g.

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Patrick C. Hsieh and Praveen V. Mummaneni

We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized.

The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement.

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Martin H. Pham, Andre M. Jakoi and Patrick C. Hsieh

Adult deformity patients often require fixation to the sacrum and pelvis for construct stability and improved fusion rates. Although certain sacropelvic fixation techniques can be challenging, the availability of intraoperative navigation has made many of these techniques more feasible. In this video case presentation, the authors demonstrate the techniques of S-1 bicortical screw and S-2-alar-iliac screw fixation under intraoperative navigation in a 67-year-old female. This instrumentation placement was part of an overall T-10–pelvis construct for the correction of adult spinal deformity.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/3HZo-80jQr8.

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Patrick C. Hsieh and Michael Y. Wang

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Brian Lee and Patrick C. Hsieh

Intradural, extramedullary schwannomas have long been treated with open midline incision, laminectomy, and dural opening to expose and resect the lesion. While this technique is well established, today new surgical techniques can be utilized to perform the same procedure while minimizing pain, size of incision, and trauma to adjacent tissues. In cases of intradural surgery, minimally invasive surgery limits the degree of soft tissue disruption. As a result, there is significant decreased dead space within the surgical cavity that may decrease the rate of CSF leak complications. Minimally invasive techniques have continuously improved over the years and have reached a point where they can be used for intradural surgeries. In this case presentation, we demonstrate a minimally invasive approach to the lumbar spine with resection of an intradural schwannoma. Surgical techniques and the nuances of the minimally invasive approach to intradural tumors compared to the standard open procedure will be discussed.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/XXrvAIq_H48.