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Issam Awad and Pascal Jabbour

✓Seizures and epilepsy are frequent clinical manifestations of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) and represent the most common symptomatic presentation of supratentorial lesions. Clinicians often diagnose CCMs in patients after a first seizure, or in some cases after obtaining neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from chronic epilepsy previously thought to be idiopathic. In some cases, the lesion is clinically significant solely because of its epileptogenicity, but in others there may be concern about potential hemorrhage or focal neurological deficits from a similar lesion.

The authors present current pathophysiological concepts related to epilepsy associated with CCMs. They discuss the spectrum of seizure disorders associated with these lesions and review the natural history, prognosis, and options for therapeutic intervention.

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Edison P. Valle-Giler, Elias Atallah, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a very important tool in the treatment of nonruptured cerebral aneurysms. However, a patient’s difficult anatomy or vascular stenosis may affect the device delivery. The purpose of this article was to describe an alternate technique for PED deployment when ipsilateral anatomy is not amenable for catheter navigation.

A 44-year-old woman with a symptomatic 6-mm right superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm and a known history of right internal carotid artery dissection presented for PED treatment of her aneurysm. An angiogram showed persistence of the arterial dissection with luminal stenosis after 6 months of dual antiplatelet treatment. The contralateral internal carotid artery was catheterized and the PED was deployed via a transcirculation approach, using the anterior communicating artery. Transcirculation deployment of a PED is a viable option when ipsilateral anatomy is difficult or contraindicated for this treatment.

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Kenan AlKhalili, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury is higher in patients with large AVMs. Multistaged volumetric management of large AVMs was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. This strategy offers a promising method for obtaining high AVM obliteration rates with minimal normal tissue damage. The use of embolization as an adjunctive method in the treatment of large AVMs remains controversial. Unfortunately, staged-volume radiosurgery (SVR) has a number of potential pitfalls that affect the outcome. The aim of this article is to highlight the role of SVR in the treatment of large AVMs, to discuss the outcome comparing it to other treatment modalities, and to discuss the potential improvement that could be introduced to this method of treatment.

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Mattia Pacetti, Pascal J. Mosimann, Jean-Baptiste Zerlauth, Francesco Puccinelli, Marc Levivier and Roy Thomas Daniel

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Pascal Jabbour, Michael Fehlings, Alexander R. Vaccaro and James S. Harrop

In this paper the authors review spine trauma and spinal cord injury (SCI) in the geriatric population. The information in this study was compiled through a literature review of clinical presentation and management of SCI in the elderly population. This was done to define, identify, and specify treatment algorithms and management strategies in this unique patient population.

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Badih Daou, Petra Klinge, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

There are several etiologies that can lead to the development of secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in patients with sNPH and to highlight important differences between the separate etiologies.

METHODS

A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify studies conducted between 1965 and 2015 that included data regarding the etiology, treatment, diagnosis, and outcome in patients with sNPH. Sixty-four studies with a total of 1309 patients were included. The inclusion criteria of this study were articles that were written in English, included more than 2 patients with the diagnosis of sNPH, and contained data regarding the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, or outcome of NPH. The most common assessment of clinical improvement was based on the Stein and Langfitt grading scale or equivalent improvement on other alternative ordinal grading scales.

RESULTS

The main etiologies of sNPH were subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 46.5%, head trauma in 29%, intracranial malignancies in 6.2%, meningoencephalitis in 5%, and cerebrovascular disease in 4.5% of patients. In 71.9% of patients the sNPH was treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and 24.4% had placement of a ventriculoatrial shunt. Clinical improvement after shunt placement was reported in 74.4% and excellent clinical improvement in 58% of patients with sNPH. The mean follow-up period after shunt placement was 13 months. Improvement was seen in 84.2% of patients with SAH, 83% of patients with head trauma, 86.4% of patients with brain tumors, 75% of patients with meningoencephalitis, and 64.7% of patients with NPH secondary to stroke.

CONCLUSIONS

Secondary NPH encompasses a diverse group of clinical manifestations associated with a subset of patients with acquired hydrocephalus. The most common etiologies of sNPH include SAH and traumatic brain injury. Secondary NPH does indeed exist, and should be differentiated from idiopathic NPH based on outcome and on clinical, pathophysiological, and epidemiological characteristics, but should not be considered as a separate entity.

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Joshua H. Weinberg, Ahmad Sweid, Kalyan Sajja, M. Reid Gooch, Nabeel Herial, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of CorPath GRX robotic-assisted (RA) transradial (TR) carotid artery stenting (CAS) compared with manual TR CAS.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database and identified 13 consecutive patients who underwent TR CAS from June 2019 through February 2020. Patients were divided into 2 groups: RA (6 patients) and manual (7 patients).

RESULTS

Among 6 patients in the RA group with a mean age of 70.0 ± 7.2 years, technical success was achieved in all 6 (100%) procedures; there were no technical or access-site complications and no catheter exchanges. Transfemoral conversion was required in 1 (16.7%) case due to a tortuous aortic arch. There were no perioperative complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality. The mean procedure duration was significantly longer in the RA group (85.0 ± 14.3 minutes [95% CI 69.9–100.0] vs 61.2 ± 17.5 minutes [95% CI 45.0–77.4], p = 0.0231). There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, fluoroscopy time, contrast dose, radiation exposure, catheter exchanges, technical success, transfemoral conversion, technical or access-site complications, myocardial infarction, stroke, other complications, or mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results suggest that RA TR CAS is feasible, safe, and effective. Neurovascular-specific engineering and software modifications are needed prior to complete remote control. Remote control has important implications regarding patient access to lifesaving procedures for conditions such as stroke and aneurysm rupture as well as operative precision. Future clinical investigations among larger cohorts are needed to demonstrate reliable performance and patient benefit.

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Peter G. Campbell, Pascal Jabbour, Sanjay Yadla and Issam A. Awad

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are divided into sporadic and familial forms. For clinical imaging, T2-weighted gradient-echo sequences have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional sequences. Recently more advanced imaging techniques such as high-field and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging have been employed for the evaluation of CCMs. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging and functional MR imaging have been applied to the preoperative and intraoperative management of these lesions. In this paper, the authors attempt to provide a concise review of the emerging imaging methods used in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of CCMs.

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Sonia G. Teufack, Peter Campbell, Pascal Jabbour, Mitchell Maltenfort, James Evans and John K. Ratliff

Object

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have moved to limit hospital augmentation of diagnosis-related group billing for “never events” (adverse events that are serious, largely preventable, and of concern to the public and health care providers for the purpose of public accountability) and certain hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). Similar restrictions may be applied to physician billing. The financial impact of these restrictions may fall on academic medical centers, which commonly have populations of complex patients with a higher risk of HACs. The authors sought to quantify the potential financial impact of restrictions in never events and periprocedural HAC billing on a tertiary neurosurgery facility.

Methods

Operative cases treated between January 2008 and June 2008 were reviewed after searching a prospectively maintained database of perioperative complications. The authors assessed cases in which there was a 6-month lag time to allow for completion of hospital and physician billing. They speculated that other payers would soon adopt the present CMS restrictions and that procedure-related HACs would be expanded to cover common neurosurgery procedures. To evaluate the impact on physician billing and to directly contrast physician and hospital billing impact, the authors focused on periprocedural HACs, as opposed to entire admission HACs. Billing records were compiled and a comparison was made between individual event data and simultaneous cumulative net revenue and net receipts. The authors assessed the impact of the present regulations, expansion of CMS restrictions to other payers, and expansion to rehospitalization and entire hospitalization case billing due to HACs and never events.

Results

A total of 1289 procedures were completed during the examined period. Twenty-five procedures (2%) involved patients in whom HACs developed; all were wound infections. Twenty-nine secondary procedures were required for this cohort. Length of stay was significantly higher in patients with HACs than in those without (11.6 ± 11.5 vs 5.9 ± 7.0 days, respectively). Fifteen patients required readmission due to HACs. Following present never event and HAC restrictions, hospital and physician billing was minimally affected (never event billing as percent total receipts was 0.007% for hospitals and 0% for physicians). Nonpayment for rehospitalization and reoperation for HACs by CMS and private payers yielded greater financial impact (CMS only, percentage of total receipts: 0.14% hospital, 0.2% physician; all payers: 1.56% hospital, 3.0% physician). Eliminating reimbursement for index procedures yielded profound reductions (CMS only as percentage of total receipts: 0.62% hospital, 0.8% physician; all payers: 5.73% hospital, 8.9% physician).

Conclusions

The authors found potentially significant reductions in physician and facility billing. The expansion of never event and HACs reimbursement nonpayment may have a substantial financial impact on tertiary care facilities. The elimination of never events and reduction in HACs in current medical practices are worthy goals. However, overzealous application of HACs restrictions may remove from tertiary centers the incentive to treat high-risk patients.

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Benjamin Zussman, Pascal Jabbour, Kiran Talekar, Richard Gorniak and Adam E. Flanders

Object

Although dynamic, first-pass cerebral CT perfusion is used in the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke, a lack of standardization restricts the value of this imaging modality in clinical decision-making. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the reported sources of variability and error in cerebral CT perfusion results.

Methods

A systematic literature review was conducted, 120 articles were reviewed, and 23 published original research articles were included. Sources of variability and error were thematically categorized and presented within the context of the 3 stages of a typical CT perfusion study: data acquisition, postprocessing, and results interpretation.

Results

Seven factors that caused variability were identified and described in detail: 1) contrast media, the iodinated compound injected intravascularly to permit imaging of the cerebral vessels; 2) data acquisition rate, the number of images obtained by CT scan per unit time; 3) user inputs, the subjective selections that operators make; 4) observer variation, the failure of operators to repeatedly measure a perfusion parameter with precision; 5) software operational mode, manual, semiautomatic, or automatic; 6) software design, the mathematical algorithms used to perform postprocessing; and 7) value type, absolute versus relative values.

Conclusions

Standardization at all 3 stages of the CT perfusion study cycle is warranted. At present, caution should be exercised when interpreting CT perfusion results as these values may vary considerably depending on a variety of factors. Future research is needed to define the role of CT perfusion in clinical decision-making for acute stroke patients and to determine the clinically acceptable limits of variability in CT perfusion results.