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Paritosh Pandey, Teresa Bell-Stephens and Gary K. Steinberg

Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by idiopathic bilateral stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries and the development of characteristic leptomeningeal collateral vessels at the base of the brain. Typical presentations include transient ischemic attacks or stroke, and hemorrhage. Presentation with movement disorders is extremely rare, especially in the pediatric population. The authors describe the cases of 4 children with moyamoya disease who presented with movement disorders.

Among 446 patients (118 pediatric) with moyamoya disease surgically treated by the senior author, 4 pediatric patients had presented with movement disorders. The clinical records, imaging studies, surgical details, and postoperative clinical and imaging data were retrospectively reviewed.

The initial presenting symptom was movement disorder in all 4 patients: chorea in 2, hemiballismus in 1, and involuntary limb shaking in 1. All the patients had watershed infarcts involving the frontal subcortical region on MR imaging. Additionally, 1 patient had a ganglionic infarct. Single-photon emission computed tomography studies showed frontoparietal cortical and subcortical hypoperfusion in all patients. Three patients had bilateral disease, whereas 1 had unilateral disease. All the patients underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass. Postoperatively, all 4 patients had complete improvement in their symptoms. The SPECT scans revealed normal perfusion in 3 patients and a small residual perfusion deficit in 1.

Movement disorders are a rare presenting feature of moyamoya disease. Hypoperfusion of the frontal cortical and subcortical region was seen in all patients, and the symptomatology was attributed to ischemic dysfunction and imbalance in the cortical-subcortical-ganglionic-thalamic-cortical circuitry. Combined revascularization with superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis leads to excellent results.

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Paritosh Pandey and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Revascularization for moyamoya disease, either by direct anastomosis or indirect procedures, is an accepted and effective form of treatment for prevention of future ischemic events. Indirect procedures do not provide sufficient collateral vessels in a subset of patients, who then have persistent or new symptoms. Repeat revascularization procedures may be recommended for these patients.

Methods

Sixteen patients underwent repeat revascularization after undergoing an indirect procedure in the same hemisphere. These patients were included in the study, and a retrospective review of their clinical details, neuroimaging results, surgical details, and outcome was performed. Direct revascularization was the procedure of choice; however, in patients with no acceptable recipient vessel (> 0.6 mm) the authors added a second indirect procedure for further revascularization.

Results

Over the last 19 years, 16 patients (8 male and 8 female patients, age range 5–48 years, mean 16.7 years, 10 pediatric and 6 adult patients) underwent repeat revascularization for moyamoya disease. Initially all patients presented with ischemic symptoms (4 transient ischemic attacks [TIAs] and 12 strokes; 2 patients had bilateral symptoms). Angiography revealed that 13 patients had bilateral disease, and 3 had unilateral disease. Initial surgery was bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in 9, unilateral EDAS alone in 3, unilateral EDAS with contralateral superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass in 2, bilateral encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) in 1, and unilateral EMS in 1. Thirteen of the 16 patients continued to have TIAs in the hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery, whereas 1 patient had seizures and cognitive deficit, 1 had asymptomatic infarct on MR imaging, and 1 had visual symptoms. Poor revascularization was seen on angiography studies in all patients. The median duration between the surgeries was 24 months (3 months–10 years).

Repeat revascularization was performed in 23 hemispheres (16 patients). Direct revascularization was performed in 14 hemispheres (60.9%): STA-MCA bypass in 10, external carotid artery–MCA vein bypass in 2, occipital artery (OA)–MCA in 1, and OA–posterior cerebral artery in 1 hemisphere. Indirect revascularization was performed for patients without an acceptable recipient vessel, and was done in 9 hemispheres. The procedures included EMS (4 hemispheres), repeat EDAS (2), and omental transposition (3). There was 1 postoperative death in a patient undergoing a high-flow vein graft implantation. None of the other patients experienced any neurological worsening after surgery.

Follow-up was available in all patients, ranging from 3 to 144 months (mean 34 months, median 12 months). Of the 15 patients who survived repeat revascularization surgery, 12 (80%) were free from any TIA, stroke, or any other neurological symptoms. Two patients had occasional TIAs, less frequent than before, whereas 1 patient had frequent TIAs and underwent revision of the revascularization. Angiographic studies were available in 11 patients, and showed improved flow in the hemispheres in 10 patients. Follow-up MR imaging performed at 6 months did not reveal a new infarct in any patient.

Conclusions

Repeat revascularization procedures are effective for patients who are clinically symptomatic and have inadequate collateral vessels following indirect procedures. Although direct procedures are preferred, the choice of procedure depends on the operative findings and the status of donor and recipient vessels.

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Raman Mohan Sharma, Nupur Pruthi, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Sampath Somanna, Bhagavathula Indira Devi and Paritosh Pandey

OBJECT

Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tubercular meningitis (TBM), and its incidence is increasing with the HIV epidemic. Literature evaluating the role of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in HIV-positive patients with TBM and their long-term prognosis is scarce.

METHODS

Between June 2002 and October 2012, 30 HIV-positive patients with TBM and hydrocephalus underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Thirty age-, sex-, and grade-matched HIV-negative patients with TBM and hydrocephalus were randomly selected as the control group. Outcome was analyzed at discharge (short-term outcome) and at follow-up (long-term outcome). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to look for predictors of outcome; p < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

There were no differences in the clinical, radiological, or biochemical parameters between the 2 groups. Short-term outcome was better in the HIV-negative group (76.7% improvement) than in the HIV-positive group (70%). However, the long-term outcome in HIV-positive patients was very poor (66.7% mortality and 76.2% poor outcome) compared with HIV-negative patients (30.8% mortality and 34.6% poor outcome). Seropositivity for HIV is an independent predictor of poor outcome both in univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.038). However, in contrast to previous reports, of 5 patients with TBM in good Palur grades among the HIV-positive patients, 4 (80%) had good outcome following shunt placement.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors recommend that shunt treatment should not be performed in HIV-positive patients in poor Palur grade with hydrocephalus. A trial of external ventricular drainage should be undertaken in such patients, and shunt treatment should be performed only if there is any improvement. However, HIV-positive patients in good Palur grades should undergo VP shunt placement, as these patients have better outcomes than previously reported.

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Balaram Thota, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Thennarasu Kandavel, Arun H. Shastry, Paritosh Pandey, Bangalore Ashwathnarayanarao Chandramouli, Alangar Sathyaranjandas Hegde, Paturu Kondaiah and Vani Santosh

Object

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glioma. In a previous study the authors demonstrated that IGFBP-3 is a novel glioblastoma biomarker associated with poor survival. Since signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) has been shown to be regulated by IGFBP-3 during chondrogenesis and is a prosurvival and radioresistant molecule in different tumors, the aim in the present study was to explore the functional significance of IGFBP-3 in malignant glioma cells, to determine if STAT-1 is indeed regulated by IGFBP-3, and to study the potential of STAT-1 as a biomarker in glioblastoma.

Methods

The functional significance of IGFBP-3 was investigated using the short hairpin (sh)RNA gene knockdown approach on U251MG cells. STAT-1 regulation by IGFBP-3 was tested on U251MG and U87MG cells by shRNA gene knockdown and exogenous treatment with recombinant IGFBP-3 protein. Subsequently, the expression of STAT-1 was analyzed with real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in glioblastoma and control brain tissues. Survival analyses were done on a uniformly treated prospective cohort of adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (136 patients) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models.

Results

IGFBP-3 knockdown significantly impaired proliferation, motility, migration, and invasive capacity of U251MG cells in vitro (p < 0.005). Exogenous overexpression of IGFBP-3 in U251MG and U87MG cells demonstrated STAT-1 regulation. The mean transcript levels (by real-time RT-PCR) and the mean labeling index of STAT-1 (by IHC) were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in control brain tissues (p = 0.0239 and p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that STAT-1 protein expression (HR 1.015, p = 0.033, 95% CI 1.001–1.029) along with patient age (HR 1.025, p = 0.005, 95% CI 1.008–1.042) were significant predictors of shorter survival in patients with glioblastoma.

Conclusions

IGFBP-3 influences tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and regulates STAT-1 expression in malignant glioma cells. STAT-1 is overexpressed in human glioblastoma tissues and emerges as a novel prognostic biomarker.

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Paritosh Pandey, Michael P. Marks, Ciara D. Harraher, Erick M. Westbroek, Steven D. Chang, Huy M. Do, Richard P. Levy, Robert L. Dodd and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are diverse because of their variations in size (S), location in eloquent cortex (E), and presence of central venous drainage (V). Because they may have implications for management and outcome, the authors evaluated these variations in the present study.

Methods

Between 1984 and 2010, 100 patients with Grade III AVMs were treated. The AVMs were categorized by Spetzler-Martin characteristics as follows: Type 1 = S1E1V1, Type 2 = S2E1V0, Type 3 = S2E0V1, and Type 4 = S3E0V0. The occurrence of a new neurological deficit, functional status (based on modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) at discharge and follow-up, and radiological obliteration were correlated with demographic and morphological characteristics.

Results

One hundred patients (49 female and 51 male; age range 5–68 years, mean 35.8 years) were evaluated. The size of AVMs was less than 3 cm in 28 patients, 3–6 cm in 71, and greater than 6 cm in 1; 86 AVMs were located in eloquent cortex and 38 had central drainage. The AVMs were Type 1 in 28 cases, Type 2 in 60, Type 3 in 11, and Type 4 in 1. The authors performed embolization in 77 patients (175 procedures), surgery in 64 patients (74 surgeries), and radiosurgery in 49 patients (44 primary and 5 postoperative).

The mortality rate following the management of these AVMs was 1%. Fourteen patients (14%) had new neurological deficits, with 5 (5%) being disabling (mRS score > 2) and 9 (9%) being nondisabling (mRS score ≤ 2) events. Patients with Type 1 AVMs (small size) had the best outcome, with 1 (3.6%) in 28 having a new neurological deficit, compared with 72 patients with larger AVMs, of whom 13 (18.1%) had a new neurological deficit (p < 0.002). Older age (> 40 years), malformation size > 3 cm, and nonhemorrhagic presentation predicted the occurrence of new deficits (p < 0.002). Sex, eloquent cortex, and venous drainage did not confer any benefit.

In 89 cases follow-up was adequate for data to be included in the obliteration analysis. The AVM was obliterated in 78 patients (87.6%), 69 of them (88.5%) demonstrated on angiography and 9 on MRI /MR angiography. There was no difference between obliteration rates between different types of AVMs, size, eloquence, and drainage. Age, sex, and clinical presentation also did not predict obliteration.

Conclusions

Multimodality management of Grade III AVMs results in a high rate of obliteration, which was not influenced by size, venous drainage, or eloquent location. However, the development of new neurological deficits did correlate with size, whereas eloquence and venous drainage did not affect the neurological complication rate. The authors propose subclassifying the Grade III AVMs according to their size (< 3 and ≥ 3 cm) to account for treatment risk.

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Paritosh Pandey, Srikantha Umesh, Dhananjaya Bhat, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Rojin Abraham, Shibu Pillai, Anandh Balasubramaniam, Indira Devi, Sommanna Sampath and Bengaluru A. Chandramouli

Object

Cerebellar abscesses are common neurosurgical emergencies in developing countries, and have a distressingly high mortality rate of 10 to 15% even today. There is still no consensus on the standard approach to these lesions, and controversy persists over whether these lesions should be treated with primary excision or aspiration.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed 82 cases of cerebellar pyogenic abscesses in children treated at their institution over a period of 10 years. This represents the largest such series being described in literature. All lesions except 1 were otogenic in origin. The clinical and radiological features are discussed.

Results

Primary excision was undertaken in 66 patients (80%) and aspiration in 16 patients (20%). Five patients in whom the abscesses were initially treated with aspiration subsequently underwent elective excision. Nine (12.6%) of 71 patients in whom the abscesses were excised had residual abscesses on postoperative imaging; in those who had undergone aspiration as the primary treatment, 6 (54.5%) of 11 patients had recurrent abscesses. There were no deaths among the patients who underwent excision of the abscess. Also, excision of posterior fossa abscesses required fewer repeated procedures with lower recurrence rates, and statistically lower rate of complications.

Conclusions

Compared to primary aspiration, the authors found that primary excision is the preferred method for treating cerebellar abscesses.

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Umesh Srikantha, Jagadeesh V. Morab, Savitr Sastry, Rojin Abraham, Anandh Balasubramaniam, Sampath Somanna, Indira Devi, Chandramouli A. Bangalore and Paritosh Pandey

Object

Hydrocephalus is the most common complication of tubercular meningitis (TBM). Relieving hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement has been considered beneficial in patients in Palur Grade II or III. The role of VP shunt placement in those of Grade IV is controversial and the general tendency is to avoid its use. Some authors have suggested that patients in Grade IV should receive a shunt only if their condition improves with a trial placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD). In the present study, the authors assessed the outcome of VP shunt placement in patients in Grade IV TBM with hydrocephalus to examine the factors predicting outcome and to determine whether a trial with an EVD is absolutely necessary prior to shunt placement.

Methods

Ninety-five consecutive cases of TBM with hydrocephalus in which the patients underwent VP shunt placement were retrospectively analyzed, and direct VP shunts were placed whenever possible. An EVD was placed first only in the presence of deranged blood parameters. Outcomes were assessed both in the short and long term.

Results

The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range 1–55 years). Fifty-two patients underwent direct VP shunt placement, and the remaining 43 received EVDs first. Overall, 33 and 45% of patients had favorable short- and long-term outcomes, respectively. Age older than 3 years and duration of altered sensorium ≤ 3 days were predictive of a favorable short-term outcome. Glasgow Coma Scale score at presentation was predictive of long-term outcome. Of the patients who did not improve with placement of an EVD prior to VP shunt insertion, 24 and 18% had favorable short- and long-term outcomes, respectively; this was not significantly different from the outcome in the patients who underwent direct VP shunt placement.

Conclusions

Direct VP shunt placement is an effective option in patients with Grade IV TBM with hydrocephalus. Age and duration of altered sensorium are predictive of short-term outcome, while Glasgow Coma Scale score at presentation predicts long-term outcome. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts should be considered even in patients who do not improve with an EVD.

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Madhugiri S. Venkatesh, Paritosh Pandey, B. Indira Devi, Kiran Khanapure, Sathyanarayana Satish, Somanna Sampath, Bangalore A. Chandramouli and Kolluri V. R. Sastry

Object

Pediatric cases of infratentorial subdural empyema (SDE) are both rare and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome in an exclusively pediatric series of SDE cases.

Methods

A series of 14 pediatric cases of infratentorial SDE wasretrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated between 1994 and 2004. Sixty-four percent of the patients were boys; the majority of cases occurred during the summer months. Clinical features included headache, fever, vomiting, meningism, and otorrhea. Cerebellar signs were found only in 21% of patients. In 85.7% of the cases, the patients presented with a depressed level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale Scores 11–15). In 79.6%, pus collection was seen over the cerebellar convexity; interhemispheric and tentorial collections were also observed in some cases. Hydrocephalus was present in 92.9% of patients. Five patients required external ventricular drainage during surgery or postoperatively. Shunt placement was required in 21% of cases.

All patients were treated with antibiotic therapy and surgery (bur holes in 21% of the cases, craniectomy in 79%). Pus cultures demonstrated microbial infection in 71.4%, and polymicrobial infection in 21%. Four patients required repeated surgery for reaccumulation of pus. Minor postoperative complications developed in three patients. All 14 patients survived. At follow up, the Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were 4 or 5 in all cases.

Conclusions

Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment are crucial in cases of SDE. With appropriate surgery, antibiotic therapy, and management of hydrocephalus, good outcome can be expected.