Sanjeev Ariyandath Sreenivasan, Kanwaljeet Garg, Shashwat Mishra, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Manmohan Singh, and Poodipedi Sarat Chandra
Akash Mishra, Deepak Agrawal, Deepak Gupta, Sumit Sinha, Guru D. Satyarthee, and Pankaj K. Singh
Spondyloptosis represents the most severe form of spondylolisthesis, which usually follows high-energy trauma. Few reports exist on this specific condition, and the largest series published to date consists of only 5 patients. In the present study the authors report the clinical observations and outcomes in a cohort of 20 patients admitted to a regional trauma center for severe injuries including spondyloptosis.
The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted with spondyloptosis at their department over a 5-year period (March 2008–March 2013). Clinical, radiological, and operative details were reviewed for all patients.
In total, 20 patients with spondyloptosis were treated during the period reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 27 years (range 12–45 years), and 17 patients were male (2 boys and 15 men) and 3 were women. Fall from height (45%) and road traffic accidents (35%) were the most common causes of the spinal injuries. The grading of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) was used to assess the severity of spinal cord injury, which for all patients was ASIA Grade A at the time of admission. In 11 patients (55%), the thoracolumbar junction (T10–L2) was involved in the injury, followed by the dorsal region (T1–9) in 7 patients (35%); 1 patient (5%) had lumbar and 1 patient (5%) sacral spondyloptosis. In 19 patients (95%), spondyloptosis was treated surgically, involving the posterior route in all cases. In 7 patients (37%), corpectomy was performed. None of the patients showed improvement in neurological deficits. The mean follow-up length was 37.5 months (range 3–60 months), and 5 patients died in the follow-up period from complications due to formation of bedsores (decubitus ulcers).
To the authors' best knowledge, this study was the largest of its kind on traumatic spondyloptosis. Its results illustrate the challenges of treating patients with this condition. Despite deformity correction of the spine and early mobilization of patients, traumatic spondyloptosis led to high morbidity and mortality rates because the patients lacked access to rehabilitation facilities postoperatively.
Satish Kumar Verma and Pankaj Kumar Singh
Ambuj Kumar, Amandeep Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Shashwat Mishra, Kanwaljeet Garg, and Bhawani S. Sharma
Ramachandra G. Naik, Ariachery Ammini, Pankaj Shah, Chitra Sarkar, Veer Singh Mehta, and Manorama Berry
✓ A case of lymphocytic hypophysitis is described in a patient presenting with panhypopituitarism 8 years after her last childbirth. The patient developed headache, vomiting, and diplopia (due to palsy of the right lateral rectus muscle) 7 months after delivery of her last baby. The diplopia disappeared after a few days with symptomatic treatment, and the headache and vomiting decreased in intensity with analgesic therapy. Eight years later the patient developed symptoms suggestive of hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism, and amenorrhea. Investigations revealed panhypopituitarism with a pituitary mass lesion. Repeat evaluation 1 year later demonstrated no change in the size of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery with a provisional diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Histological examination of the resected gland revealed evidence of lymphocytic hypophysitis. Symptoms suggestive of a pituitary mass lesion were noted during the peripartum period, but features of hypopituitarism developed much later. Such a long latent period has not been reported before. This report also highlights the fact that glandular enlargement may persist for many years after the onset of lymphocytic hypophysitis.
Pankaj K. Singh, Mohit Agrawal, Dattaraj Sawarkar, Amandeep Kumar, Satish Verma, Ramesh Doddamani, P. Sarat Chandra, and Shashank S. Kale
Hangman’s fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, causes widening of the neural canal and thus a low rate of neurological deficits. This low rate is one of the reasons it is neglected and patients present with late neurological deficits. In an effort to preserve motion at the C1–2 joint, the authors devised a new technique of bilateral C2 pedicle reconstruction. They describe the first two cases in the literature of an old hangman’s fracture with resorbed C2 pedicles due to chronic fracture, in which bilateral C2 pedicles were reconstructed. One of the two cases (case 2) is the first reported case of severe C2–3 spondyloptosis with C2 displaced up to the level of C4. Case 1 had a follow up of 21 months, while case 2 had a follow up of 12 months. Both patients experienced neurological improvement with evidence of fusion and artificial pedicle formation at last follow-up. Bilateral C2 pedicle reconstruction is a feasible technique that can be used with a good outcome in select patients.
Renu Saini, Bhavya Pahwa, Deepak Agrawal, Pankaj Singh, Hitesh Gurjar, Shashwat Mishra, Aman Jagdevan, and Mahesh Chandra Misra
The intramedullary route holds the potential to provide the most concentration of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the safety and feasibility of this route need to be studied in human subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of intramedullary injected bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in acute complete SCI.
In this prospective study conducted over a 2-year period, 27 patients with acute (defined as within 1 week of injury) and complete SCI were randomized to receive BM-MSC or placebo through an intramedullary route intraoperatively at the time of spinal decompression and fusion. Institutional ethics approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Safety was assessed using laboratory and clinicoradiological parameters preoperatively and 3 and 6 months after surgery.
A total of 180 patients were screened during the study period. Of these, 27 were enrolled in the study. Three patients withdrew, 3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 8 patients died, leaving a total of 13 patients for final analysis. Seven of these patients were in the stem cell group, and 6 were in the control group. Both groups were well matched in terms of sex, age, and weight. No adverse events related to stem cell injection were noted for laboratory and radiological parameters. Five patients in the control group and 3 patients in the stem cell group died during the follow-up period.
Intramedullary injection of BM-MSCs was found to be safe and feasible for use in patients with acute complete SCI.