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Issael Ramirez, Paldor Iddo and Sergey Spektor

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are known to be angiographically occult malformations with low perfusion of blood flow.5 Near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography allows for intraoperative observation and documentation of blood flow in large and small vessels.2,4

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are thought to be the most common cerebral vascular abnormality.2,3 The opportunity to differentiate intraoperatively between normal veins and DVA draining veins might be useful in the event of a possible venous sacrifice. Coagulation of the DVA can lead to devastating consequences. ICG reliably demonstrates margins between CCM and the venous structures.1,2 For these reasons, we decided to use ICG video angiography in this patient.

The video can be found here:

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Moshe Attia, Felix Umansky, Iddo Paldor, Shlomo Dotan, Yigal Shoshan and Sergey Spektor


Surgery for giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas that invade vital neurovascular structures surrounding the anterior clinoid process is challenging. The authors present their skull base technique for the treatment of giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas, defined here as globular tumors with a maximum diameter of 5 cm or larger, centered around the anterior clinoid process, which is usually hyperostotic.


Between 2000 and 2010, the authors performed 23 surgeries in 22 patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas. They used a skull base approach with extradural unroofing of the optic canal, extradural clinoidectomy (Dolenc technique), transdural debulking of the tumor, early optic nerve decompression, and early identification and control of key neurovascular structures.


The mean age at surgery was 53.8 years. The mean tumor diameter was 59.2 mm (range 50–85 mm) with cavernous sinus involvement in 59.1% (13 of 22 patients). The tumor involved the prechiasmatic segment of the optic nerve in all patients, invaded the optic canal in 77.3% (17 of 22 patients), and caused visual impairment in 86.4% (19 of 22 patients). Total resection (Simpson Grade I or II) was achieved in 30.4% of surgeries (7 of 23); subtotal and partial resections were each achieved in 34.8% of surgeries (8 of 23). The main factor precluding total removal was cavernous sinus involvement. There were no deaths. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.8 (median 5) at a mean of 56 months of follow-up. Vision improved in 66.7% (12 of 18 patients) with consecutive neuroophthalmological examinations, was stable in 22.2% (4 of 18), and deteriorated in 11.1% (2 of 18). New deficits in cranial nerve III or IV remained after 8.7% of surgeries (2 of 23).


This modified surgical protocol has provided both a good extent of resection and a good neurological and visual outcome in patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas.

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Tali Siegal, Hanna Charbit, Iddo Paldor, Bracha Zelikovitch, Tamar Canello, Arriel Benis, Michael L. Wong, Andrew P. Morokoff, Andrew H. Kaye and Iris Lavon


Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic agent under investigation for use in patients with high-grade glioma. It produces a high rate of radiological response; however, this response should be interpreted with caution because it may reflect normalization of the tumor vasculature and not necessarily a true antitumor effect. The authors previously demonstrated that 4 hypoxia-mediated microRNAs (miRNA)—miR-210, miR-21, miR-10b, and miR-196b—are upregulated in glioma as compared with normal brain tissue. The authors hypothesized that the regulation and expression of these miRNAs would be altered in response to bevacizumab treatment. The object of this study was to perform longitudinal monitoring of circulating miRNA levels in patients undergoing bevacizumab treatment and to correlate it with tumor response.


A total of 120 serum samples from 28 patients with high-grade glioma were prospectively collected prior to bevacizumab (n = 15) or temozolomide (TMZ; n = 13) treatment and then longitudinally during treatment. Quantification of the 4 miRNAs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using total RNA extracted from the serum. At each time point, tumor response was assessed by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria and by performing MRI using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and contrast-enhanced images.


As compared with pretreatment levels, high levels of miR-10b and miR-21 were observed in the majority of patients throughout the bevacizumab treatment period. miR-10b and miR-21 levels correlated negatively and significantly with changes in enhancing tumor diameters (r = −0.648, p < 0.0001) in the bevacizumab group but not in the TMZ group. FLAIR images and the RANO assessment did not correlate with the sum quantification of these miRNAs in either group.


Circulating levels of miR-10b and miR-21 probably reflect the antiangiogenic effect of therapy, but their role as biomarkers for tumor response remains uncertain and requires further investigation.