✓ The authors report a case of a 13-year-old boy with juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient experienced sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. Cranial computerized tomography scanning revealed blood within basal cisterns and the third ventricle. Angiography demonstrated normal cerebral vasculature and upward displacement of the bilateral A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a chiasmatic/hypothalamic mass with evidence of hemorrhage. The mass was surgically decompressed. Histopathological examination showed evidence of JPA. In all cases of SAH in which there is blood around the third ventricle and a raised A1 segment on angiography, MR imaging should be performed. The presence of a normal sella turcica, as well as indistinct margins between the tumor and the opticochiasmatic apparatus should raise suspicion about the lesion.
Case report and review of the literature
Ajay Garg, Manish Chugh, Shailesh B. Gaikwad, Sarat P. Chandra, Vipul Gupta, Nalin K. Mishra and Mehar Chand Sharma
Rajinder Kumar, Sarat P. Chandra and Bhawani Shanker Sharma
The management of intradiploic CSF collection is controversial. Although it is a benign lesion, even then delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to significant morbidity. The authors report a very rare case of giant posttraumatic intradiploic pseudomeningocele involving the occipital bone, occipital condyles, and clivus. The pathogenesis and management of intradiploic CSF collection are discussed.
This 16-year-old boy presented with a history of enlarging swelling in the suboccipital region associated with headache, lower cranial nerve palsy, and features of high cervical compressive myelopathy. Investigations revealed a giant intradiploic lesion involving the occipital bone, condyles, and clivus associated with secondary basilar invagination, hydrocephalus, and syringomyelia. Intrathecal contrast administration did not reveal communication of intradiploic space with the subarachnoid space. A large occipital craniotomy was performed. A linear fracture and dural defect in the midline was identified, which was closed with fascial graft after removing the inner table of the skull. Cranioplasty was performed using the expanded calvarial bone. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus, and the patient improved remarkably.
Posttraumatic intradiploic CSF collection, although a benign condition, may present with severe complications if treatment is delayed. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors suggest that this condition should be treated early, as for growing skull fractures.
Abstracts of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the AANS/CNS Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves
Phoenix, Arizona • March 6–9, 2013
P. Sarat Chandra and Manjari Tripathi
P. Sarat Chandra, Heri Subianto, Jitin Bajaj, Shabari Girishan, Ramesh Doddamani, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Mahendra Singh Chouhan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar S. Bal, Chitra Sarkar, Rekha Dwivedi, Savita Sapra and Manjari Tripathi
Endoscope-assisted hemispherotomy (EH) has emerged as a good alternative option for hemispheric pathologies with drug-resistant epilepsy.
This was a prospective observational study. Parameters measured included primary outcome measures (frequency, severity of seizures) and secondary outcomes (cognition, behavior, and quality of life). Blood loss, operating time, complications, and hospital stay were also taken into account. A comparison was made between the open hemispherotomy (OH) and endoscopic techniques performed by the senior author.
Of 59 cases (42 males), 27 underwent OH (8 periinsular, the rest vertical) and 32 received EH. The mean age was 8.65 ± 5.41 years (EH: 8.6 ± 5.3 years; OH: 8.6 ± 5.7 years). Seizure frequency per day was 7 ± 5.9 (EH: 7.3 ± 4.6; OH: 15.0 ± 6.2). Duration of disease (years since first episode) was 3.92 ± 1.24 years (EH: 5.2 ± 4.3; OH: 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Number of antiepileptic drugs per patient was 3.9 ± 1.2 (EH: 4.2 ± 1.2; OH: 3.8 ± 0.98). Values for the foregoing variables are expressed as the mean ± SD. Pathologies included the following: postinfarct encephalomalacia in 19 (EH: 11); Rasmussen’s syndrome in 14 (EH: 7); hemimegalencephaly in 12 (EH: 7); hemispheric cortical dysplasia in 7 (EH: 4); postencephalitis sequelae in 6 (EH: 2); and Sturge-Weber syndrome in 1 (EH: 1). The mean follow-up was 40.16 ± 17.3 months. Thirty-nine of 49 (79.6%) had favorable outcomes (International League Against Epilepsy class I and II): in EH the total was 19/23 (82.6%) and in OH it was 20/26 (76.9%). There was no difference in the primary outcome between EH and OH (p = 0.15). Significant improvement was seen in the behavioral/quality of life performance, but not in IQ scores in both EH and OH (p < 0.01, no intergroup difference). Blood loss (p = 0.02) and hospital stay (p = 0.049) were less in EH.
EH was as effective as the open procedure in terms of primary and secondary outcomes. It also resulted in less blood loss and a shorter postoperative hospital stay.
Sandeep Sood, Neena I. Marupudi and Steven D. Ham
Shabari Girishan, Manjari Tripathi, Ajay Garg, Ramesh Doddamani, Jitin Bajaj, Bhargavi Ramanujam and P. Sarat Chandra
The authors sought to analyze the residual connections formed by the temporal stem as a cause for seizure recurrence following endoscopic vertical interhemispheric hemispherotomy and to review and compare lateral approach (perisylvian) with vertical approach surgical techniques to highlight the anatomical factors responsible for residual connections.
This study was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent endoscopic hemispherotomy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Postoperative MR images were analyzed. Specific attention was given to anatomical 3D-acquired thin-section T1 images to assess the extent of disconnection, which was confirmed with a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Cadaver brain dissection was done to analyze the anatomical factors responsible for persistent connections.
Of 39 patients who underwent surgery, 80% (31/39) were seizure free (follow-up of 23.61 ± 8.25 months) following the first surgery. Thirty patients underwent postoperative MRI studies, which revealed persistent connections in 14 patients (11 temporal stem only; 3 temporal stem + amygdala + splenium). Eight of these 14 patients had persistent seizures. In 4 of these 8 patients, investigations revealed good concordance with the affected hemisphere, and repeat endoscopic disconnection of the residual connection was performed. Two of the 8 patients were lost to follow-up, and 2 had bihemispheric seizure onset. The 4 patients who underwent repeat endoscopic disconnection had seizure-free outcomes following the second surgery, increasing the good outcome total among all patients to 90% (35/39). Cadaveric brain dissection analysis revealed the anatomical factors responsible for the persistence of residual connections.
In endoscopic vertical approach interhemispheric hemispherotomy (and also vertical approach parasagittal hemispherotomy) the temporal stem, which lies deep and parallel to the plane of disconnection, is prone to be missed, which might lead to persistent or recurrent seizures. The recognition of this limitation can lead to improved seizure outcome. The amygdala and splenium are areas less commonly prone to be missed during surgery.