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  • Author or Editor: P. Richard Schuurman x
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P. Richard Schuurman, Rob M. A. de Bie, Charles B. L. Majoie, Johannes D. Speelman and D. Andries Bosch

Object. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare stereotactic coordinates obtained with ventriculography with coordinates derived from stereotactic computer-reconstructed three-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) imaging in functional stereotactic procedures.

Methods. In 15 consecutive patients undergoing functional stereotactic procedures, both preoperative frame-based stereotactic 3D-MR imaging and intraoperative ventriculography were performed. Differences between 3D-MR imaging and ventriculography in X, Y, and Z coordinates of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and target area were calculated, as well as the 3D distance between the position of AC, PC, and target within stereotactic space as obtained using both methods. The position of the stereotactic MR imaging fiducial markers measured using 3D-MR imaging compared well with the markers' known position embedded in the software (mean error 0.4 mm, maximal error for an individual slice 1.2 mm). For the individual coordinates, only for Y-PC was a difference found between 3D-MR imaging and ventriculography that significantly exceeded half the size of a pixel, the theoretical limit of precision when using a digitized imaging technique. However, the mean difference was smaller than 1 mm. The mean 3D distance between the 3D-MR imaging— and ventriculography-derived coordinates was 1.09 mm for AC, 1.13 mm for PC, and 1.29 mm for the targets.

Conclusions. With these data it is shown that there is sufficient agreement between ventriculography-derived and 3D-MR imaging—derived stereotactic coordinates to justify the use of 3D-MR imaging target determination in frame-based functional stereotactic neurosurgery.

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Naomi Prent, Wouter V. Potters, Lennard I. Boon, Matthan W. A. Caan, Rob M. A. de Bie, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P. Richard Schuurman and Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism of tremor suppression is not well understood. Stimulation of white matter tracts, such as the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT), might be involved. Also, side effects, including dysarthria, might result from (unwanted) stimulation of white matter tracts in proximity to the STN. The aim of this study was to establish an association between stimulation effect on tremor and dysarthria and stimulation location relative to relevant white matter tracts.


In 35 PD patients in whom a bilateral STN DBS system was implanted, the authors established clinical outcome measures per electrode contact. The distance from each stimulation location to the center of the DRT, corticopontocerebellar tract, pyramidal tract (PT), and medial lemniscus was determined using diffusion-weighted MRI data. Clinical outcome measures were subsequently related to the distances to the white matter tracts.


Patients with activated contacts closer to the DRT showed increased tremor improvement. Proximity of activated contacts to the PT was associated with dysarthria.


Proximity to specific white matter tracts is associated with tremor outcome and side effects in DBS. This knowledge can help to optimize both electrode placement and postsurgical electrode contact selection. Presurgical white matter tract visualization may improve targeting and DBS outcome. These findings are of interest not only for treatment in PD, but potentially also for other (movement) disorders.