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Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, Oscar Zorro, Javier Lobato-Polo, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Radiosurgery for brain metastasis fails in some patients, who require further surgical care. In this paper the authors' goal was to evaluate prognostic factors that correlate with the survival of patients who require a resection of a brain metastasis after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Methods

During the last 14 years when surgical navigation systems were routinely available, the authors identified 58 patients who required resection for various brain metastases after SRS. The median patient age was 54 years. Prior adjuvant treatment included whole-brain radiation therapy alone (17 patients), chemotherapy alone (9 patients), both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (10 patients), and prior resection before SRS (8 patients). The median target volumes at the time of SRS and resection were 7.7 cm3 (range 0.5–24.9 cm3) and 15.5 cm3 (range 1.3–81.2 cm3), respectively.

Results

At a median follow-up of 7.6 months, 8 patients (14%) were living and 50 patients (86%) had died. The survival after surgical removal was 65, 30, and 16% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively (median survival after resection 7.7 months). The local tumor control rate after resection was 71, 62, and 43% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. A univariate analysis revealed that patient preoperative recursive partitioning analysis classification, Karnofsky Performance Scale status, systemic disease status, and the interval between SRS and resection were factors associated with patient survival. The mortality and morbidity rates of resection were 1.7 and 6.9%, respectively.

Conclusions

In patients with symptomatic mass effect after radiosurgery, resection may be warranted. Patients who had delayed local progression after SRS (> 3 months) had the best outcomes after resection.

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Douglas Kondziolka, Oscar Zorro, Javier Lobato-Polo, Hideyuki Kano, Thomas J. Flannery, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Trigeminal neuralgia pain causes severe disability. Stereotactic radiosurgery is the least invasive surgical option for patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Since different medical and surgical options have different rates of pain relief and morbidity, it is important to evaluate longer-term outcomes.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed outcomes in 503 medically refractory patients with trigeminal neuralgia who underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The median patient age was 72 years (range 26–95 years). Prior surgery had failed in 205 patients (43%). The GKS typically was performed using MR imaging guidance, a single 4-mm isocenter, and a maximum dose of 80 Gy.

Results

Patients were evaluated for up to 16 years after GKS; 107 patients had > 5 years of follow-up. Eighty-nine percent of patients achieved initial pain relief that was adequate or better, with or without medications (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] Scores I–IIIb). Significant pain relief (BNI Scores I–IIIa) was achieved in 73% at 1 year, 65% at 2 years, and 41% at 5 years. Including Score IIIb (pain adequately controlled with medication), a BNI score of I–IIIb was found in 80% at 1 year, 71% at 3 years, 46% at 5 years, and 30% at 10 years. A faster initial pain response including adequate and some pain relief was seen in patients with trigeminal neuralgia without additional symptoms, patients without prior surgery, and patients with a pain duration of ≤ 3 years. One hundred ninety-three (43%) of 450 patients who achieved initial pain relief reported some recurrent pain 3–144 months after initial relief (median 50 months). Factors associated with earlier pain recurrence that failed to maintain adequate or some pain relief were trigeminal neuralgia with additional symptoms and ≥ 3 prior failed surgical procedures. Fifty-three patients (10.5%) developed new or increased subjective facial paresthesias or numbness and 1 developed deafferentation pain; these symptoms resolved in 17 patients. Those who developed sensory loss had better long-term pain control (78% at 5 years).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia and is of value for initial or recurrent pain management. Despite the goal of minimizing sensory loss with this procedure, some sensory loss may improve long-term outcomes. Pain relapse is amenable to additional GKS or another procedure.