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Hiroshi Takahashi, Akira Sasaki, Toshimoto Arai, Yasushi Tsukamoto, Osamu Sato and Keiji Sano

✓ This paper reports the first case of chromoblastomycosis affecting the cisterna magna and the spinal subarachnoid space. Suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy of T-8, 9, and 10 revealed arachnoiditis and multiple granulomas caused by Hormodendrum pedrosi.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

Previous studies have shown a relationship between a patient's stage of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and outcome. However, few studies have assessed whether a specific lesion or type of corpus callosum injury (CCI) influences outcome in patients with DAI. The authors investigated the effect of various DAIs and CCIs on outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 78 consecutive patients with DAI who were seen between May 2004 and March 2010. Outcome was evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (EGOS) 1 year after TBI. Patients with single DAIs had only 1 of the 3 lesions (lobar, CC, or brainstem). Patients with dual DAIs had 2 of these lesions, and those with triple DAIs had all of these lesions. Furthermore, the authors defined single, dual, and triple CCIs by using 3 lesions (genu, body, splenium) in the same way among patients with single (CC) DAIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between these lesions and outcome in patients with DAI.

Results

Fifty patients had single DAIs: 34 in the lobar area, 11 in the CC, and 5 in the brainstem. Twenty had dual DAIs, and 8 had triple DAIs. Of the 11 CCIs, 9 were single and 2 were dual CCIs. Among these lesions, only those in the genu were related to disability. The authors dichotomized patients into those with and without genu lesions, regardless of other injuries. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that a genu lesion (OR 18, 95% CI 2.2–32; p = 0.0021) and a pupillary abnormality (OR 14, 95% CI 1.6–24; p = 0.0068) were associated with disability (EGOS ≤ 6) in patients with DAI.

Conclusions

Regardless of the number of lesions, the existence of a genu lesion suggested disability 1 year after TBI in patients with DAI.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Akihiro Uemura, Motoharu Fujii, Minobu Kamo, Osamu Takahashi and Sosuke Sumiyoshi

Object

Patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms have historically been observed to have poor neuropsychological outcomes, and ACoA aneurysms have accounted for a higher proportion of ruptured than unruptured aneurysms. Authors of this study aimed to investigate the morphological and clinical characteristics predisposing to ACoA aneurysm rupture.

Methods

Data from 140 consecutive patients with ACoA aneurysms managed at the authors' facility between July 2003 and November 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with (78) and without (62) aneurysm rupture were divided into groups, and morphological and clinical characteristics were compared. Morphological characteristics were evaluated based on 3D CT angiography and included aneurysm location, dominance of the A1 portion of the anterior cerebral artery, direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA, aneurysm bleb(s), size of the aneurysm and its neck, aneurysm–parent artery angle, and existence of other intracranial unruptured aneurysms.

Results

Patients with ruptured ACoA aneurysms were significantly younger (a higher proportion were younger than 60 years of age) than those with unruptured lesions, and a significantly smaller proportion had hypercholesterolemia. A significantly larger proportion of patients with ruptured aneurysms showed an anterior direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA, had a bleb(s), and/or had an aneurysm size ≥ 5 mm. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an anterior direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA (OR 6.0, p = 0.0012), the presence of a bleb(s) (OR 22, p < 0.0001), and an aneurysm size ≥ 5 mm (OR 3.16, p = 0.035) were significantly associated with ACoA aneurysm rupture.

Conclusions

Findings in the present study demonstrated that the anterior projection of an ACoA aneurysm may be related to rupturing. The authors would perhaps recommend treatment to patients with unruptured ACoA aneurysms that have an anterior dome projection, a bleb(s), and a size ≥ 5 mm.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Motoharu Fujii, Gensuke Akaike, Akihiro Uemura, Osamu Takahashi, Yasunari Niimi and Masaki Shinoda

Object

Recent studies have shown that posterior circulation aneurysms, specifically posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, are more likely to rupture than other aneurysms. To date, few studies have investigated the factors contributing to PCoA aneurysm rupture. The authors aimed to identify morphological and clinical characteristics predisposing to PCoA aneurysm rupture.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 134 consecutive patients with PCoA aneurysms managed at their facility between July 2003 and December 2012. The authors divided patients into groups of those with aneurysmal rupture (n = 39) and without aneurysmal rupture (n = 95) and compared morphological and clinical characteristics. Morphological characteristics were mainly evaluated by 3D CT angiography and included diameter of arteries (anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and internal carotid artery), size of the aneurysm, dome-to-neck ratio, neck direction of the aneurysmal dome around the PCoA (medial, lateral, superior, inferior, and posterior), aneurysm bleb formation, whether the PCoA was fetal type, and the existence of other intracranial unruptured aneurysm(s).

Results

Patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms were significantly younger (a higher proportion were < 60 years of age) and a significantly higher proportion of patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms showed a lateral direction of the aneurysmal dome around the PCoA, had bleb formation, and the aneurysm was > 7 mm in diameter and/or the dome-to-neck ratio was > 2.0. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age < 60 years (OR 4.3, p = 0.011), history of hypertension (OR 5.1, p = 0.008), lateral direction of the aneurysmal dome around the PCoA (OR 6.7, p = 0.0001), and bleb formation (OR 11, p < 0.0001) to be significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture.

Conclusions

The present results demonstrated that lateral projection of a PCoA aneurysm may be related to rupture.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Atsushi Murakata, Daisuke Yamamoto, Sosuke Sumiyoshi and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is widely regarded as one element of a complex involving severe blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI); corpus callosum injury (CCI) is recently considered to be one factor associated with poor outcome in patients with TBI. Although postmortem studies have focused on the relationship between IVH and CCI, there have been few investigations of IVH evidenced on CT scans as a predictor of CCI evidenced on MRI.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from 371 patients with blunt TBI, without trauma to the face, chest, abdomen, extremities, or pelvic girdle, requiring immediate therapeutic intervention. Their aim was to investigate whether IVH found on CT predicts CCI on MRI. Clinical and radiological data were collected between June 2003 and February 2011. First, the authors classified patients into groups of those with CCI and those without CCI, and they compared clinical and radiological findings between them. Then, they investigated prognostic factors that were related to the development of disability at 6 months after injury. The outcomes at 6 months after injury were evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E). Finally, the authors evaluated the correlation between the severity of the IVH on CT and the number of CCI lesions on MRI. The severity of the IVH was defined by the number of ventricles in which IVH was seen, and the number of CCI lesions was counted on the MRI study.

Results

On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 2.70 [95% CI 1.10–6.27]), traffic accident (OR 2.59 [95% CI 1.37–4.93]), and IVH on CT (OR 3.31 [95% CI 1.25–8.49]) were significantly related to CCI. Multivariate analysis also showed that older age (p = 0.0001), male sex (OR 3.26 [95% CI 1.46–8.08], p = 0.0065), Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 8.27 [95% CI 3.39–21.4], p < 0.0001), evidence of IVH on CT (OR 4.09 [95% CI 1.45–11.9], p = 0.0081), and evidence of CCI on MRI (OR 8.32 [95% CI 3.89–18.8], p < 0.0001) were associated with future development of disability (GOS-E score ≤6). Furthermore, simple regression analysis revealed the existence of a strong correlation between the severity of IVH and the number of CCI lesions (r = 0.0668, p = 0.0022).

Conclusions

The authors' results suggest that evidence of IVH on CT may indicate CCI, which can lead to disability in patients with isolated blunt TBI.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Motoharu Fujii, Masaki Shinoda, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

It is well known that spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissection (siVAD) is an important cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The factors that influence whether SAH develops, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical characteristics and imaging findings are different in patients with siVAD with SAH compared to those with siVAD without SAH.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective, single-institution study involving patients in whom siVAD developed with or without SAH, between July 2003 and November 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate clinical characteristics and MR angiography findings. The vertebral-union-basilar angle (VUBA) was defined as the most acute angle between line of the basilar artery trunk and line of the vertebral angle (VA) at the vertebral union on 3D MR angiograms.

Results

Among 58 patients with siVAD, 21 developed SAH. The presence of siVAD and SAH was significantly associated with higher rates of current smoking (OR 13; 95% CI 3.6–38; p < 0.0001), dissection of the dominant VA (OR 9.2; 95% CI 2.5–19; p = 0.0004), and unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms (OR 11; 95% CI 2.1–19; p = 0.0025), and the VUBA of the dominant VA was significantly larger (p < 0.0001, univariate analysis). Multivariate analysis showed that these differences were still significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

A larger VUBA of the dominant VA, the presence of unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms, and current smoking may be factors that predict which patients with siVAD will develop SAH by dominant VAD.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Toshiyuki Tsuboi, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Shiro Miyata, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Osamu Takahashi, Rihee Takeda, Sadahisa Tokuda and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

Only a few previous studies have investigated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after surgical treatment in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Given the improvement in long-term outcomes of embolization, more extensive data are needed concerning the true rupture rates after microsurgery in order to provide reliable information for treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.

METHODS

Data from 702 consecutive patients harboring 852 surgically treated UIAs were evaluated. Surgical treatments included neck clipping (complete or incomplete), coating/wrapping, trapping, proximal occlusion, and bypass surgery. Clippable UIAs were defined as UIAs treated by complete neck clipping. The annual incidence of postoperative SAH and risk factors for SAH were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models.

RESULTS

The patients’ median age was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR] 56–71 years). Of 852 UIAs, 767 were clippable and 85 were not. The mean duration of follow-up was 731 days (SD 380 days). During 1708 aneurysm years, there were 4 episodes of SAH, giving an overall average annual incidence rate of 0.23% (95% CI 0.12%–0.59%) and an average annual incidence rate of 0.065% (95% CI 0.0017%–0.37%) for clippable UIAs (1 episode of SAH, 1552 aneurysm-years). Basilar artery location (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 23, 95% CI 2.0–255, p = 0.0012) and unclippable UIA status (adjusted HR 15, 95% CI 1.1–215, p = 0.046) were significantly related to postoperative SAH. An excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) was achieved in 816 (95.7%) of 852 cases overall and in 748 (98%) of 767 clippable UIAs at 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS

In this large case series, microsurgical treatment of UIAs was found to be safe and effective. Aneurysm location and unclippable morphologies were related to postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Shiro Miyata, Toshiyuki Tsuboi, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Osamu Takahashi, Rihee Takeda, Sadahisa Tokuda, Hiroyasu Kamiyama and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

After internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice without revascularization for complex aneurysms, ischemic complications can occur. In addition, hemodynamic alterations in the circle of Willis create conditions conducive to the formation of de novo aneurysms or the enlargement of existing untreated aneurysms. Therefore, the revascularization technique remains indispensable. Because vessel sizes and the development of collateral circulation are different in each patient, the ideal graft size to prevent low flow–related ischemic complications (LRICs) in external carotid artery (ECA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass with therapeutic ICA occlusion (ICAO) has not been well established. Authors of this study hypothesized that the adequate graft size could be calculated from the size of the sacrificed ICA and the values of MCA pressure (MCAP) and undertook an investigation in patients with complex ICA aneurysms treated with ECA-graft-MCA bypass and therapeutic ICAO.

METHODS

In the period between July 2006 and January 2016, 80 patients with complex ICA aneurysms were treated with ECA-MCA bypass and therapeutic ICAO. Preoperative balloon test occlusion (BTO) was performed, and the BTO pressure ratio was defined as the mean stump pressure/mean preocclusion pressure. Low flow–related ischemic complications were defined as new postoperative neurological deficits and ipsilateral cerebral blood flow reduction. Initial MCAP (iMCAP), MCAP after clamping the ICA (cMCAP), and MCAP after releasing the graft (gMCAP) were intraoperatively monitored. The MCAP ratio was defined as gMCAP/iMCAP. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille law, the expected MCAP ratio ([expected gMCAP]/iMCAP) was hypothesized as follows: (1 – cMCAP/iMCAP)(graft radius/ICA radius)2 + (cMCAP/iMCAP). Correlations between the BTO pressure ratio and cMCAP/iMCAP, and between the actual and expected MCAP ratios, were evaluated. Risk factors for LRICs were also evaluated.

RESULTS

The mean BTO pressure ratio was significantly correlated with the mean cMCAP/iMCAP (r = 0.68, p < 0.0001). The actual MCAP ratio correlated with the expected MCAP ratio (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). If the expected MCAP ratio was set up using the BTO pressure ratio instead of cMCAP/iMCAP (BTO-expected MCAP ratio), the mean BTO-expected MCAP ratio significantly correlated with the expected MCAP ratio (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001). During a median follow-up period of 26.1 months, LRICs were observed in 9 patients (11%). An actual MCAP ratio < 0.80 (p = 0.003), expected MCAP ratio < 0.80 (p = 0.001), and (M2 radius/graft radius)2 < 0.49 (p = 0.002) were related to LRICs according to the Cox proportional-hazards model.

CONCLUSIONS

Data in the present study indicated that it was important to use an adequate graft to achieve a sufficient MCAP ratio in order to avoid LRICs and that the adequate graft size could be evaluated based on a formula in patients with complex ICA aneurysms treated with ICAO.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

Perforator territory infarction (PTI) is still a major problem needing to be solved to achieve good outcomes in aneurysm surgery. However, details and risk factors of PTI diagnosed on postoperative MRI remain unknown. The authors aimed to investigate the details of PTI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with surgically treated unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms (UISAs).

METHODS

The data of 848 patients with 1047 UISAs were retrospectively evaluated. PTI was diagnosed on DWI, which was performed the day after aneurysm surgery. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between UISAs with and without PTI. Poor outcome was defined as an increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores at 12 months after aneurysm surgery.

RESULTS

Postoperative DWI was performed in all cases, and it revealed PTI in 56 UISA cases (5.3%). Forty-three PTIs occurred without direct injury and occlusion of perforators (43 of 56, 77%). Poor outcome was more frequently observed in the PTI group (17 of 56, 30%) than the non-PTI group (57 of 1047, 5.4%) (p < 0.0001). Thalamotuberal arteries (p < 0.01), lateral striate arteries (p < 0.01), Heubner’s artery (p < 0.01), anterior median commissural artery (p < 0.05), terminal internal carotid artery perforators (p < 0 0.01), and basilar artery perforator (p < 0 0.01) infarctions were related to poor outcome by adjusted residual analysis. On multivariate analysis, statin use (OR 10, 95% CI, 3.3–31; p < 0.0001), specific aneurysm locations (posterior communicating artery [OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.1–8.1; p < 0.0001] and basilar artery [OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.9; p = 0.031]), larger aneurysm size (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1–1.2; p = 0.043), and permanent decrease of motor evoked potential (OR 38, 95% CI 3.1–468; p = 0.0045) were related to PTI.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite efforts to avoid PTI, it occurred even without direct injury, occlusion of perforators, or evoked potential abnormality. Therefore, surgical treatment of UISAs, especially with the aforementioned risk factors of PTI, should be more carefully considered. The evaluation of PTI in the territory of the above-mentioned perforators could be useful in helping predict the clinical course in patients after aneurysm surgery.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Yuto Hatano, Takanori Miyazaki, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

It is well known that larger aneurysm size is a risk factor for poor outcome after surgical treatment of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms (USIAs). However, the authors have occasionally observed poor outcome in the surgical treatment of small USIAs and hypothesized that size ratio has a negative impact on outcome. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of size ratio on outcome in the surgical treatment of USIAs.

METHODS

Prospectively collected clinical and radiological data of 683 consecutive patients harboring 683 surgically treated USIAs were evaluated. Dome-to-neck ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum width of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter. The aspect ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum perpendicular height of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter of the aneurysm. The size ratio was calculated by dividing the maximum aneurysm diameter (height or width, mm) by the average parent artery diameter (mm). Neurological worsening was defined as an increase in modified Rankin Scale score of 1 or more points at 12 months. Clinical and radiological variables were compared between patients with and without neurological worsening.

RESULTS

The median patient age was 64 years (IQR 56–71 years), and 528 (77%) patients were female. The median maximum size, dome-to-neck ratio, aspect ratio, and size ratio were 4.7 mm (IQR 3.6–6.7 mm), 1.2 (IQR 1.0–1.4), 1.0 (IQR 0.76–1.3), and 1.9 (IQR 1.4–2.8), respectively. The size ratio was significantly correlated with maximum size (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), dome-to-neck ratio (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001), and aspect ratio (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the specific USIA location (paraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery: OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.6–15, p < 0.0001; and basilar artery: OR 8.4, 95% CI 2.8–25, p < 0.0001), size ratio (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6, p = 0.021), and postoperative ischemic lesion (OR 9.4, 95% CI 4.4–19, p < 0.0001) were associated with neurological worsening (n = 52, 7.6%), and other characteristics showed no significant differences.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study showed that size ratio, and not other morphological parameters, was a risk factor for 12-month neurological worsening in surgically treated patients with USIAs. The size ratio should be further studied in a large, prospective observational cohort to predict neurological worsening in the surgical treatment of USIAs.