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Kazumichi Yoshida, Hideki Endo, Nobutake Sadamasa, Osamu Narumi, Masaki Chin, Katsumi Inoue, Kazuaki Mitsudo, and Sen Yamagata


The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of long-axis black-blood MR (BB–MR) imaging for assessing plaque morphology and distribution in patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery (CA) stenosis.


Sixty-eight carotid arteries in 67 patients who were scheduled to undergo CA endarterectomy or CA stent placement due to atherosclerotic stenosis were included in this study. The patients had undergone CA BB–MR imaging and digital subtraction (DS) angiography within 3 weeks of revascularization. The DS angiography studies were performed using the transfemoral artery approach with selective common CA catheterization. The BB–MR images were acquired using a 1.5-T whole-body MR imaging unit, and T1-weighted images parallel to the long axis of the artery at 1-mm intervals were obtained. Plaque distribution was evaluated by measuring the distance between the CA bifurcation and the point that appeared to be the distal extent of the plaque on BB–MR imaging (D–MR imaging) and DS angiography images (D–DS angiography).


Plaque distribution was clearly shown in 88.2% of the cases using long-axis BB–MR images, except for 8 arteries with poor image quality. In 4 arteries, D–DS angiography could not be obtained because the distal plaque end could not be confirmed. In 56 vessels, both the D–DS angiography and D–MR imaging could be measured; the mean D–MR imaging (19.75 ± 6.85 mm [standard deviation]) was significantly longer than the average D–DS angiography (16.32 ± 7.07 mm).


Long-axis BB–MR imaging can provide a noninvasive and accurate way to show CA plaque distribution; it is of great use not only for stroke risk assessment in patients with CA atherosclerosis but also for preoperative evaluation in patients requiring CA endarterectomy or CA stent placement.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Hitoshi Fukuda, Masaaki Saiki, Yoshihito Tsuji, Benjamin Lo, Toshinari Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Ioroi, Ryu Fukumitsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Masashi Oda, Osamu Narumi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata, and Susumu Miyamoto


Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) may arise after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) as CSF resorptive mechanisms are disrupted. Using propensity score analysis, the authors aimed to investigate which treatment modality, surgical clipping or endovascular treatment, is superior in reducing rates of SDHC after aSAH.


The authors’ multicenter SAH database, comprising 3 stroke centers affiliated with Kyoto University, Japan, was used to identify patients treated between January 2009 and July 2016. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to characterize risk factors for SDHC after aSAH. A propensity score model was generated for both treatment groups, incorporating relevant patient covariates to detect any superiority for prevention of SDHC after aSAH.


A total of 566 patients were enrolled in this study. SDHC developed in 127 patients (22%). On multivariate analysis, age older than 53 years, the presence of intraventricular hematoma, and surgical clipping as opposed to endovascular coiling were independently associated with SDHC after aSAH. After propensity score matching, 136 patients treated with surgical clipping and 136 with endovascular treatment were matched. Propensity score–matched cohorts exhibited a significantly lower incidence of SDHC after endovascular treatment than after surgical clipping (16% vs 30%, p = 0.009; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2). SDHC was independently associated with poor neurological outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 3–6) at discharge (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6–7.3; p < 0.001).


SDHC after aSAH occurred significantly more frequently in patients who underwent surgical clipping. Strategies for treatment of ruptured aneurysms should be used to mitigate SDHC and minimize poor outcomes.