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Shigeta Fujitani, Osamu Ishikawa, Keisuke Miura, Yasuhiro Takeda, Haruo Goto, and Keiichiro Maeda

OBJECTIVE

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a recurrence rate of 9.2%–26.5% after bur hole surgery. Occasionally patients with bilateral CSDH undergo unilateral surgery because the contralateral hematoma is deemed to be asymptomatic, and in some of these patients the contralateral hematoma may subsequently enlarge, requiring additional surgery. The authors investigated the factors related to the growth of these hematomas.

METHODS

Ninety-three patients with bilateral CSDH who underwent unilateral bur hole surgery at Aizu Chuo Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis. Findings on preoperative MRI, preoperative thickness of the drained hematoma, and the influence of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs were considered and evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS

The overall growth rate was 19% (18 of 93 hematomas), and a significantly greater percentage of the hematomas that were iso- or hypointense on preoperative T1-weighted imaging showed growth compared with other hematomas (35.4% vs 2.3%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that findings on preoperative T1-weighted MRI were the sole significant predictor of hematoma growth, and other factors such as antiplatelet or anticoagulant drug use, patient age, patient sex, thickness of the treated hematoma, and T2-weighted MRI findings were not significantly related to hematoma growth. The adjusted odds ratio for hematoma growth in the T1 isointense/hypointense group relative to the T1 hyperintense group was 25.12 (95% CI 3.89–51.58, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The findings of preoperative MRI, namely T1-weighted sequences, may be useful in predicting the growth of hematomas that did not undergo bur hole surgery in patients with bilateral CSDH.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Atsushi Murakata, Daisuke Yamamoto, Sosuke Sumiyoshi, and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is widely regarded as one element of a complex involving severe blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI); corpus callosum injury (CCI) is recently considered to be one factor associated with poor outcome in patients with TBI. Although postmortem studies have focused on the relationship between IVH and CCI, there have been few investigations of IVH evidenced on CT scans as a predictor of CCI evidenced on MRI.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from 371 patients with blunt TBI, without trauma to the face, chest, abdomen, extremities, or pelvic girdle, requiring immediate therapeutic intervention. Their aim was to investigate whether IVH found on CT predicts CCI on MRI. Clinical and radiological data were collected between June 2003 and February 2011. First, the authors classified patients into groups of those with CCI and those without CCI, and they compared clinical and radiological findings between them. Then, they investigated prognostic factors that were related to the development of disability at 6 months after injury. The outcomes at 6 months after injury were evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E). Finally, the authors evaluated the correlation between the severity of the IVH on CT and the number of CCI lesions on MRI. The severity of the IVH was defined by the number of ventricles in which IVH was seen, and the number of CCI lesions was counted on the MRI study.

Results

On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 2.70 [95% CI 1.10–6.27]), traffic accident (OR 2.59 [95% CI 1.37–4.93]), and IVH on CT (OR 3.31 [95% CI 1.25–8.49]) were significantly related to CCI. Multivariate analysis also showed that older age (p = 0.0001), male sex (OR 3.26 [95% CI 1.46–8.08], p = 0.0065), Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 8.27 [95% CI 3.39–21.4], p < 0.0001), evidence of IVH on CT (OR 4.09 [95% CI 1.45–11.9], p = 0.0081), and evidence of CCI on MRI (OR 8.32 [95% CI 3.89–18.8], p < 0.0001) were associated with future development of disability (GOS-E score ≤6). Furthermore, simple regression analysis revealed the existence of a strong correlation between the severity of IVH and the number of CCI lesions (r = 0.0668, p = 0.0022).

Conclusions

The authors' results suggest that evidence of IVH on CT may indicate CCI, which can lead to disability in patients with isolated blunt TBI.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata, and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

Previous studies have shown a relationship between a patient's stage of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and outcome. However, few studies have assessed whether a specific lesion or type of corpus callosum injury (CCI) influences outcome in patients with DAI. The authors investigated the effect of various DAIs and CCIs on outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 78 consecutive patients with DAI who were seen between May 2004 and March 2010. Outcome was evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (EGOS) 1 year after TBI. Patients with single DAIs had only 1 of the 3 lesions (lobar, CC, or brainstem). Patients with dual DAIs had 2 of these lesions, and those with triple DAIs had all of these lesions. Furthermore, the authors defined single, dual, and triple CCIs by using 3 lesions (genu, body, splenium) in the same way among patients with single (CC) DAIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between these lesions and outcome in patients with DAI.

Results

Fifty patients had single DAIs: 34 in the lobar area, 11 in the CC, and 5 in the brainstem. Twenty had dual DAIs, and 8 had triple DAIs. Of the 11 CCIs, 9 were single and 2 were dual CCIs. Among these lesions, only those in the genu were related to disability. The authors dichotomized patients into those with and without genu lesions, regardless of other injuries. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that a genu lesion (OR 18, 95% CI 2.2–32; p = 0.0021) and a pupillary abnormality (OR 14, 95% CI 1.6–24; p = 0.0068) were associated with disability (EGOS ≤ 6) in patients with DAI.

Conclusions

Regardless of the number of lesions, the existence of a genu lesion suggested disability 1 year after TBI in patients with DAI.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Motoharu Fujii, Masaki Shinoda, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata, and Ryoichi Ishikawa

Object

It is well known that spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissection (siVAD) is an important cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The factors that influence whether SAH develops, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical characteristics and imaging findings are different in patients with siVAD with SAH compared to those with siVAD without SAH.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective, single-institution study involving patients in whom siVAD developed with or without SAH, between July 2003 and November 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate clinical characteristics and MR angiography findings. The vertebral-union-basilar angle (VUBA) was defined as the most acute angle between line of the basilar artery trunk and line of the vertebral angle (VA) at the vertebral union on 3D MR angiograms.

Results

Among 58 patients with siVAD, 21 developed SAH. The presence of siVAD and SAH was significantly associated with higher rates of current smoking (OR 13; 95% CI 3.6–38; p < 0.0001), dissection of the dominant VA (OR 9.2; 95% CI 2.5–19; p = 0.0004), and unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms (OR 11; 95% CI 2.1–19; p = 0.0025), and the VUBA of the dominant VA was significantly larger (p < 0.0001, univariate analysis). Multivariate analysis showed that these differences were still significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

A larger VUBA of the dominant VA, the presence of unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms, and current smoking may be factors that predict which patients with siVAD will develop SAH by dominant VAD.

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Shigeki Yamada, Teruo Kimura, Naoto Jingami, Masamichi Atsuchi, Osamu Hirai, Takahiko Tokuda, Masakazu Miyajima, Hiroaki Kazui, Etsuro Mori, Masatsune Ishikawa, and the SINPHONI-2 Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The study aim was to assess the influence of presurgical clinical symptom severity and disease duration on outcomes of shunt surgery in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The authors also evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid tap test as a predictor of improvements following shunt surgery.

METHODS

Eighty-three patients (45 men and 38 women, mean age 76.4 years) underwent lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, and outcomes were evaluated until 12 months following surgery. Risks for poor quality of life (Score 3 or 4 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and severe gait disturbance were evaluated at 3 and 12 months following shunt surgery, and the tap test was also conducted. Age-adjusted and multivariate relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional-hazards regression.

RESULTS

Of 83 patients with iNPH, 45 (54%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 6 patients (7%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. At 12 months after surgery, 39 patients (47%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points. On the gait domain of the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS), 36 patients (43%) improved by 1 point and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. Additionally, 32 patients (38%) improved by 1 point and 14 patients (17%) by ≥ 2 points at 12 months following surgery. In contrast, 3 patients (4%) and 2 patients (2%) had worse symptoms according to the mRS or the gait domain of the iNPHGS, respectively, at 3 months following surgery, and 5 patients (6%) and 3 patients (4%) had worse mRS scores and gait domain scores, respectively, at 12 months after surgery. Patients with severe preoperative mRS scores had a 4.7 times higher multivariate relative risk (RR) for severe mRS scores at 12 months following surgery. Moreover, patients with severe gait disturbance prior to shunt surgery had a 46.5 times greater multivariate RR for severe gait disturbance at the 12-month follow-up. Patients without improved gait following the tap test had multivariate RRs for unimproved gait disturbance of 7.54 and 11.2 at 3 and 12 months following surgery, respectively. Disease duration from onset to shunt surgery was not significantly associated with postoperative symptom severity or unimproved symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with iNPH should receive treatment before their symptoms become severe in order to achieve an improved quality of life. However, the progression of symptoms varies between patients so specific timeframes are not meaningful. The authors also found that tap test scores accurately predicted shunt efficacy. Therefore, indications for shunt surgery should be carefully assessed in each patient with iNPH, considering the relative risks and benefits for that person, including healthy life expectancy.

Open access

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Nobutaka Horie, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

Spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare vascular lesions and are classified into 4 types (types I–IV). Due to rapid advances in neuroimaging, spinal epidural AVFs (edAVFs), which are similar to type I spinal dural AVFs (dAVFs), have recently been increasingly reported. These 2 entities have several important differences that influence the treatment strategy selected. The purposes of the present study were to compare angiographic and clinical differences between edAVFs and dAVFs and to provide treatment strategies for edAVFs based on a multicenter cohort.

METHODS

A total of 280 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and edAVFs with intradural venous drainage were collected from 19 centers. After angiographic and clinical comparisons, the treatment failure rate by procedure, risk factors for treatment failure, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed in edAVF cases.

RESULTS

Final diagnoses after an angiographic review included 199 dAVFs and 81 edAVFs. At individual centers, 29 patients (36%) with edAVFs were misdiagnosed with dAVFs. Spinal edAVFs were commonly fed by multiple feeding arteries (54%) shunted into a single or multiple intradural vein(s) (91% and 9%) through a dilated epidural venous plexus. Preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades were worse in patients with edAVFs than in those with dAVFs. Among the microsurgical (n = 42), endovascular (n = 36), and combined (n = 3) treatment groups of edAVFs, the treatment failure rate was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (7.5%, 31%, and 0%, respectively). Endovascular treatment was found to be associated with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.45–22.6). In edAVFs, the independent risk factor for treatment failure after microsurgery was the number of intradural draining veins (OR 17.9, 95% CI 1.56–207), while that for treatment failure after the endovascular treatment was the number of feeders (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.23–13.8). Postoperatively, mRS score and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades significantly improved in edAVFs with a median follow-up of 31 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous drainage are a distinct entity and may be classified as type V spinal vascular malformations. Based on the largest multicenter cohort, this study showed that primary microsurgery was superior to endovascular treatment for initial treatment success in patients with spinal edAVFs.

Open access

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of the present study was to compare the treatment success rates of primary neurosurgical and endovascular treatments in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).

METHODS

Data from 199 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dAVFs were collected from 18 centers. Angiographic and clinical findings, the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence by procedures, risk factors for treatment failure, complications, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Spinal dAVFs were frequently detected in the thoracic region (81%), fed by a single feeder (86%), and shunted into an intradural vein via the dura mater. The fistulous connection between the feeder(s) and intradural vein was located at a single spinal level in 195 patients (98%) and at 2 independent levels in 4 patients (2%). Among the neurosurgical (n = 145), and endovascular (n = 50) treatment groups of single dAVFs (n = 195), the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (0.68% and 36%). A multivariate analysis identified endovascular treatment as an independent risk factor with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 69; 95% CI 8.7–546). The rate of complications did not significantly differ between the two treatment groups (4.1% for neurosurgical vs 4.0% for endovascular treatment). With a median follow-up of 26 months, improvements of ≥ 1 point in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and Aminoff-Logue gait and Aminoff-Logue micturition grades were observed in 111 (56%), 121 (61%), and 79 (40%) patients, respectively. Independent risk factors for lack of improvement in the Aminoff-Logue gait grades were multiple treatments due to initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 3.1) and symptom duration (OR 1.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on data obtained from the largest and most recently assessed multicenter cohort, the present study shows that primary neurosurgery is superior to endovascular treatment for the complete obliteration of spinal dAVFs by a single procedure.