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Akihiro Kurosu, Keiichi Amano, Osami Kubo, Hiroshi Himuro, Takeki Nagao, Naoki Kobayashi, Yoshio Kakinoki, and Koichi Kitamura

✓A rare case of epidural hematoma of the clivus is reported in an 11 -year-old girl involved in a traffic accident which caused a severe hyperextension injury. Only one similar case has been reported in the literature. The mechanism for the formation of the hematoma of this region is discussed.

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Osami Kubo, Naomi Yamasaki, Yasuo Kamijo, Keiichi Amano, Koichi Kitamura, and Reiko Demura

✓ A case is reported in which a human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing ectopic pinealoma was found in a 5-year-old girl with precocious puberty. Physical examination revealed abnormal breast enlargement. Endocrinological study disclosed a high plasma HCG concentration of 1192 ng/ml with a normal follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level. The HCG content of the tumor was as high as 400 ng/mg of acetone dried tissue, but no FSH was detectable. This is the first reported case of precocious puberty associated with pineal tumor in a female.

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Takakazu Kawamata, Hirotsune Kawamura, Osami Kubo, Atsushi Sasahara, Michihiko Yamazato, and Tomokatsu Hori

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Keiichi Amano, Naohisa Miura, Yasuhiko Tajika, Kuniaki Matsumori, Osami Kubo, Naotoshi Kobayashi, and Koiti Kitamura

✓ The authors report a case of cystic meningioma in a 10-month-old boy diagnosed by metrizamide ventriculography and computerized tomography. Intracranial meningioma in infants under 1 year old is extremely rare. This case is only the 16th case reported in the world literature; the other 15 cases are reviewed.

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Masahiro Izawa, Motohiro Hayashi, Mikhail Chernov, Koutarou Nakaya, Taku Ochiai, Noriko Murata, Yuichi Takasu, Osami Kubo, Tomokatsu Hori, and Kintomo Takakura

Object. The authors analyzed of the long-term complications that occur 2 or more years after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. Patients with previously untreated intracranial AVMs that were managed by GKS and followed for at least 2 years after treatment were selected for analysis (237 cases). Complete AVM obliteration was attained in 130 cases (54.9%), and incomplete obliteration in 107 cases (45.1%). Long-term complications were observed in 22 patients (9.3%). These complications included hemorrhage (eight cases), delayed cyst formation (eight cases), increase of seizure frequency (four cases), and middle cerebral artery stenosis and increased white matter signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (one case of each). The long-term complications were associated with larger nidus volume (p < 0.001) and a lobar location of the AVM (p < 0.01). Delayed hemorrhage was associated only with incomplete obliteration of the nidus (p < 0.05). Partial obliteration conveyed no benefit. Delayed cyst formation was associated with a higher maximal GKS dose (p < 0.001), larger nidus volume (p < 0.001), complete nidus obliteration (p < 0.01), and a lobar location of the AVM (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. Incomplete obliteration of the nidus is the most important factor associated with delayed hemorrhagic complications. Partial obliteration does not seem to reduce the risk of hemorrhage. Complete obliteration can be complicated by delayed cyst formation, especially if high maximal treatment doses have been administered.

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Yasuo Aihara, Sinichiro Watanabe, Kosaku Amano, Kana Komatsu, Kentaro Chiba, Kosuke Imanaka, Tomokatsu Hori, Takashi Ohba, Hitoshi Dairoku, Yoshikazu Okada, Osami Kubo, and Takakazu Kawamata


Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in CSF can provide a very high diagnostic value in cases of intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs), especially in pure germinomas, to the level of not requiring histological confirmation. Unlike other tumor markers, reliable data analysis with respect to the diagnostic value of PLAP serum or CSF levels has not been available until now. This is the first systematic and comprehensive study examining the diagnostic value of CSF PLAP in patients with intracranial GCTs.


From 2004 to 2014, 74 patients (average age 19.6 ± 10.6 years) with intracranial GCTs were evaluated using PLAP from their CSF and histological samples. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay was utilized to measure CSF PLAP in the following tumor sites: pineal (n = 32), pituitary stalk, suprasellar (n = 16), basal ganglia (n = 15), intraventricular (n = 9), and cerebellar (n = 5) regions. In addition to classifying GCT cases, all patients underwent tumor biopsy for correlation with tumor marker data.


PLAP in combination with other tumor markers resulted in extremely high sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic value of intracranial GCTs. Intracranial GCT cases were classified into 1) germinomas, both “pure” and syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell types (n = 38); 2) nongerminomatous GCTs, choriocarcinomas (n = 9) and teratomas (n = 4); and 3) nongerminomas, other kinds of tumors (n = 23). Consequently, all patients received chemoradiation therapy based on elevation of PLAP and the histopathological results. It was also speculated that the level of PLAP could show the amount of intracranial germ cell components of a GCT. PLAP was 100% upregulated in all intracranial germinoma cases. The absence of CSF PLAP proved that the tumor was not a germinoma.


The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive examination of the diagnostic value of the tumor marker PLAP in pediatric patients with intracranial GCT. Using the level of PLAP in CSF, we were able to detect the instances of intracranial germinoma with very high reliability, equivalent to a pathological diagnosis.