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Oriela Rustemi, Renato Scienza and Alessandro Della Puppa

Subcortical arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgically challenging. Localization is crucial for eloquent areas, and complete resection evaluation is uncertain. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) can assist this surgery. An illustrative video of a subcortical frontoparietal bleeding AVM resection assisted by ICG-VA is presented. A bleeding arterial feeder aneurysm was embolized in the acute phase to protect against rebleeding. ICG-VA helped to detect the AVM’s superficial arterialized draining vein, distinguishing it from normal cortical veins. This enabled a customized sulcus approach. ICG-VA showed normalized flow through the previously arterialized vein, confirming the AVM’s complete resection. This applies when there is a single drainage remaining.

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Oriela Rustemi, Renato Scienza and Alessandro Della Puppa

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) with cervical perimedullary drainage, Cognard V, are a surgically challenging rare entity. In this video we show the disconnection of a right tentorial Cognard V dAVF, done through a subtemporal transtentorial approach with the application of indocyanine green video angiography. A 47-year-old man presented with severe tetraparesis. Only partial embolization was possible. An osteoplastic frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to obtain a wide view along with CSF release to safely mobilize the temporal lobe. Neuronavigation was used to detect the fistula and indocyanine to detect the tentorial afferent arteries and to confirm final disconnection.

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Alessandro Della Puppa, Oriela Rustemi and Renato Scienza

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Oriela Rustemi, Fabio Raneri and Lorenzo Volpin

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Oriela Rustemi, Fabio Raneri, Lorenzo Alvaro, Luca Gazzola, Giacomo Beggio, Ludovico Rossetto and Patrizio Cervellini


Both spontaneous and iatrogenic spondylodiscitis are becoming ever more frequent, yet there are no definite treatment guidelines. For many years the treatment protocol was conservative medical management or surgical debridement with patients immobilized or bedridden for weeks and often resulting in spinal deformity. The eventual development of spinal deformity can be difficult to treat. Over the last few years, the authors have preferred a single-approach instrumented arthrodesis when spondylolysis that evolves in deformity from somatic wedging occurs.


The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiological, and surgical records of 11 patients treated over the past 3 years for spondylodiscitis with osteosynthesis.


Overall, the authors treated 11 patients: 3 cases with tuberculous spondylodiscitis (1 dorsal, 2 lumbar); 6 cases with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis (1 cervical, 2 dorsal, 2 lumbar, 1 dorsolumbar); 1 spondylodiscitis with postsurgical lumbar deformity; and in 1 dorsolumbar case the germ was not identified. Surgical approaches were chosen according to spinal level: In 8 dorsolumbar cases a posterior osteosynthesis was achieved. In 1 cervical case an anterior approach was performed with autologous bone graft from iliac crest. In 2 thoracolumbar cases a posterolateral costotransversectomy was needed. In 1 lumbosacral case iliac somatic grafting was used. Ten patients received adequate antibiotic treatment with clinical remission, and 1 case is in initial follow-up. No complications due to instrumentation were recorded. Spinal deformity was prevented in 10 cases, whereas preexisting spinal deformity was partially corrected in 1 case. In all cases, arthrodesis achieved vertebral stability.


This study has the limitations of a retrospective review with a limited number of patients. Instrumentation does not appear to hamper healing from infection. Moreover, spinal stabilization, which is assisted by the infectious process even in the absence of bone graft, allows early mobilization. Instrumented osteosynthesis should be preferred for spondylodiscitis with osteolysis and spinal instability because it allows early mobilization and rehabilitation whenever necessary. It prevents spinal deformity and does not hamper healing of infections.

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Oriela Rustemi, Loris Di Clemente, Fabio Raneri, Lorenzo Volpin and Giuseppe Iannucci

Distal, dissecting, middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are changing surgically and endovascularly. Endovascular treatment requires flow diverter stenting. A good vessel visualization is crucial for safe navigation. Three-dimensional rotational digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) is used routinely in diagnostic imaging. The utilization of the 3D-DSA road map in vessel navigation and stent deployment is novel. An illustrative video of a distal, dissecting left MCA aneurysm treated with flow diverter stenting is presented. The technical issues were distal location, dissecting nature with double lumen, proximal stenosis, and vessel curves. The 3D-DSA road map helped to enhance visualization with a safer procedure.

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Alessandro Della Puppa, Serena De Pellegrin, Anna Lazzarini, Giorgio Gioffrè, Oriela Rustemi, Annachiara Cagnin, Renato Scienza and Carlo Semenza

Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on calculation processing connectivity.

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Alessandro Della Puppa, Oriela Rustemi, Giorgio Gioffrè, Giuseppe Rolma, Marzia Grandis, Marina Munari and Renato Scienza


There are no doubts about the role that indocyanine green video angiography (ICGVA) can play in current vascular neurosurgery. Conversely, in brain tumor surgery, and particularly in meningioma surgery, this role is still unclear. Vein management is pivotal for approaching parasagittal meningiomas, because venous preservation is strictly connected to both extent of resection and clinical outcome. The authors present the technical traits and the postoperative outcome of the application of ICGVA in patients undergoing parasagittal meningioma surgery.


The authors retrospectively collected demographic, radiological, intraoperative, and follow-up data in 43 patients with parasagittal meningiomas who underwent surgery with the assistance of ICGVA at Padua Neurosurgical Department between October 2010 and July 2013. Intraoperative ICGVA findings at different stages (before dural opening, after dural opening, during resection, after resection) were reviewed. Additional data on functional monitoring, temporary venous clipping, and flow measurements were also recorded. The overall postoperative outcome was evaluated by assessing both the extent of resection and the clinical outcome data.


The ICGVA studies were performed 125 times in 43 patients, providing helpful data for vein management and tumor resection in all stages of surgery. In 16% of meningiomas completely occluding the superior sagittal sinus, the ICGVA data differed from radiological findings and changed the surgical approach. In 20% of cases the intraoperative ICGVA findings directly guided the surgical strategy: venous sacrifice was necessary in 7 cases, without postoperative consequences; temporary clipping with neurophysiological monitoring proved to be predictive of safe venous sacrifice. In 7% of cases the ICGVA data needed to be supplemented with flow measurements. Simpson Grade I–II and Grade III resections were achieved in 86% and 14% of cases, respectively, with a 4.6% rate of overall morbidity.


This study shows that ICGVA can assist the different stages of parasagittal meningiomas surgery, guiding the vein management and tumor resection strategies with a favorable final clinical outcome. However, in the authors' experience the use of other complementary tools was mandatory in selected cases to preserve functional areas. Further studies are needed to confirm that the application of ICGVA in parasagittal meningioma surgery may improve the morbidity rate, as reported in this study.

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Oriela Rustemi, Fabio Raneri, Giacomo Beggio and Lorenzo Volpin