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Odette A. Harris and John R. Adler

✓ A retrospective immunohistochemical study of radiosurgically treated brain metastases was performed to determine whether residual tumor has reduced proliferative potential. The monoclonal antibodies MIB-10 and PC-10 were used as markers for proliferation. The experimental group consisted of pathological specimens obtained from five patients in whom brain metastasis previously had been treated with radiosurgery. Pathological specimens obtained from 10 patients with brain metastases, matched in histology to diseases in the experimental group but untreated by radiosurgery, served as controls. A significant decrease in proliferative indices was observed in metastatic brain cancers after radiosurgery (p < 0.001). These results indicate that the persistent tumor that is present at the site of a metastasis previously treated with radiosurgery is less viable and may not in itself be a significant finding.

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Odette A. Harris, Carl A. Bruce, Marvin Reid, Randolph Cheeks, Kirk Easley, Monique C. Surles, Yi Pan, Donnahae Rhoden-Salmon, Dwight Webster and Ivor Crandon

Object

We evaluated management and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a developed country (US) and a developing country (Jamaica).

Methods

Data were collected prospectively at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH) in the US and at University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) and Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) in Jamaica between September 1, 2003, and September 30, 2004.

Results

Complete data were available for 1607 patients. Grady Memorial Hospital had a higher proportion of females (p = 0.003), and patients were older at GMH (p = 0.0009) compared with patients at KPH and UHWI. The most common mode of injury was a motor vehicle accident at KPH and GMH (42 and 66%, respectively) and assaults at UHWI (37%). Grady Memorial Hospital admitted more patients with severe head injuries (25.5%) than KPH (18.5%) and UHWI (14.4%). More CT scans were performed (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (p < 0.0001) at GMH. There were no statistically significant differences in median days in the intensive care unit among the 3 hospitals. Patients experienced statistically significant differences in days undergoing ventilation between GMH, KPH, and UHWI (p = 0.004). Intracranial pressure monitoring was performed in 1 patient at KPH, in 6 at UHWI, and in 91 at GMH. There were 174 total deaths, but no statistically significant differences in mortality rates between the 3 sites (p = 0.3). Hospital location and TBI severity were associated with a decreased risk of mortality; patients with severe TBI at GMH had a 53% decrease in the risk of mortality (odds ratio = 0.47, p = 0.04). Patients at GMH had lower mean Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (p < 0.0001) and lower Functional Independence Measure self-feed (p = 0.0003), locomotion (p = 0.04), and verbal scores (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Despite the availability of advanced technology and more aggressive neurological support at GMH, the overall mortality rate for TBI was similar at all locations. Patients identified with severe TBI had a significantly decreased risk of mortality if they were treated at GMH compared with those patients treated at hospitals in the developing world.

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Odette A. Harris, Carrie R. Muh, Monique C. Surles, Yi Pan, Grace Rozycki, Jana Macleod and Kirk Easley

Object

Hypothermia has been extensively evaluated in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but no consensus as to its effectiveness has yet been reached. Explanatory hypotheses include a possible confounding effect of the neuroprotective benefits by adverse systemic effects. To minimize the systemic effects, the authors evaluated a selective cerebral cooling system, the CoolSystem Discrete Cerebral Hypothermia System (a “cooling cap”), in the management of TBI.

Methods

A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Grady Memorial Hospital, a Level I trauma center. Adults admitted with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤ 8) were eligible. Patients assigned to the treatment group received the cooling cap, while those in the control group did not. Patients in the treatment group were treated with selective cerebral hypothermia for 24 hours, then rewarmed over 24 hours. Their intracranial and bladder temperatures, cranial-bladder temperature gradient, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, and mortality rates were evaluated. The primary outcome was to establish a cranial-bladder temperature gradient in those patients with the cooling cap. The secondary outcomes were mortality and morbidity per GOS and FIM scores.

Results

The cohort comprised 25 patients (12 in the treatment group, 13 controls). There was no significant intergroup difference in demographic data or median GCS score at enrollment (treatment group 3.0, controls 3.0; p = 0.7). After the third hour of the study, the mean intracranial temperature of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the controls at all time points except Hours 4 (p = 0.08) and 6 (p = 0.08). However, the target intracranial temperature of 33°C was achieved in only 2 patients in the treatment group. The mean intracranial-bladder temperature gradient was not significant for the treatment group (p = 0.07) or the controls (p = 0.67). Six (50.0%) of 12 patients in the treatment group and 4 (30.8%) of 13 in the control group died (p = 0.43). The medians of the maximum change in GOS and FIM scores during the study period (28 days) for both groups were 0. There was no significant difference in complications between the groups (p value range 0.20–1.0).

Conclusions

The cooling cap was not effective in establishing a statistically significant cranial-bladder temperature gradient or in reaching the target intracranial temperature in the majority of patients. No significant difference was achieved in mortality or morbidity between the 2 groups. As the technology currently stands, the Discrete Cerebral Hypothermia System cooling cap is not beneficial for the management of TBI. Further refinement of the equipment available for the delivery of selective cranial cooling will be needed before any definite conclusions regarding the efficacy of discrete cerebral hypothermia can be reached.

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Erratum

Discrete cerebral hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury

Odette A. Harris and Carrie R. Muh

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Bridget Harris

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Paul Kalanithi, Ryan D. Schubert, Shivanand P. Lad, Odette A. Harris and Maxwell Boakye

Object

This study provides the first US national data regarding frequency, cost, and mortality rate of traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH), and identifies demographic factors affecting morbidity and death in patients with traumatic SDH undergoing surgical drainage.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted by querying the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer database of nonfederal community hospitals. All cases of traumatic SDH were identified using ICD-9 codes. The study consisted of 2 parts: 1) trends data, which were abstracted from the years 1993–2006, and 2) univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression of demographic variables on inhospital complications and deaths for the years 1993–2002.

Results

Admissions for traumatic SDH increased 154% from 17,328 in 1993 to 43,996 in 2006. Inhospital deaths decreased from 16.4% to 11.6% for traumatic SDH. Average costs increased 67% to $47,315 per admission. For the multivariate regression analysis, between 1993 and 2002, 67,864 patients with traumatic SDH underwent operative treatment. The inhospital mortality rate was 14.9% for traumatic SDH drainage, with an 18% inhospital complication rate. Factors affecting inhospital deaths included presence of coma (OR = 2.45) and more than 2 comorbidities (OR = 1.60). Increased age did not worsen the inhospital mortality rate.

Conclusions

Nationally, frequency and cost of traumatic SDH cases are increasing rapidly.

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Huan Wang, William Olivero and William Elkins

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Gabrielle Lynch, Karina Nieto, Saumya Puthenveettil, Marleen Reyes, Michael Jureller, Jason H. Huang, M. Sean Grady, Odette A. Harris, Aruna Ganju, Isabelle M. Germano, Julie G. Pilitsis, Susan C. Pannullo, Deborah L. Benzil, Aviva Abosch, Sarah J. Fouke and Uzma Samadani

OBJECT

The objective of this study is to determine neurosurgery residency attrition rates by sex of matched applicant and by type and rank of medical school attended.

METHODS

The study follows a cohort of 1361 individuals who matched into a neurosurgery residency program through the SF Match Fellowship and Residency Matching Service from 1990 to 1999. The main outcome measure was achievement of board certification as documented in the American Board of Neurological Surgery Directory of Diplomats. A secondary outcome measure was documentation of practicing medicine as verified by the American Medical Association DoctorFinder and National Provider Identifier websites. Overall, 10.7% (n = 146) of these individuals were women. Twenty percent (n = 266) graduated from a top 10 medical school (24% of women [35/146] and 19% of men [232/1215], p = 0.19). Forty-five percent (n = 618) were graduates of a public medical school, 50% (n = 680) of a private medical school, and 5% (n = 63) of an international medical school. At the end of the study, 0.2% of subjects (n = 3) were deceased and 0.3% (n = 4) were lost to follow-up.

RESULTS

The total residency completion rate was 86.0% (n = 1171) overall, with 76.0% (n = 111/146) of women and 87.2% (n = 1059/1215) of men completing residency. Board certification was obtained by 79.4% (n = 1081) of all individuals matching into residency between 1990 and 1999. Overall, 63.0% (92/146) of women and 81.3% (989/1215) of men were board certified. Women were found to be significantly more at risk (p < 0.005) of not completing residency or becoming board certified than men. Public medical school alumni had significantly higher board certification rates than private and international alumni (82.2% for public [508/618]; 77.1% for private [524/680]; 77.8% for international [49/63]; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in attrition for graduates of top 10–ranked institutions versus other institutions. There was no difference in number of years to achieve neurosurgical board certification for men versus women.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, neurosurgery training attrition rates are low. Women have had greater attrition than men during and after neurosurgery residency training. International and private medical school alumni had higher attrition than public medical school alumni.