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Toshihiko Nakashima, Noriyuki Nakayama, Masahiro Furuichi, Jouji Kokuzawa, Takatsugu Murakawa and Noboru Sakai

The authors report two rare cases of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with moyamoya disease. An AVM, supplied by transdural communicating arteries, was located in the right occipital lobe in one patient who presented with ischemia. The second AVM, which was supplied by basal moyamoya vessels, was located in the posterior part of the left frontal lobe in a patient who developed intracerebral hemorrhage that occupied the left basal ganglion.

A review of the literature revealed a total of 12 AVMs in 11 patients with moyamoya disease including our cases. All AVMs were cerebral and two were supplied by normal cerebral arteries, whereas six AVMs were supplied by basal moyamoya vessels at the base of the brain and four AVMs were supplied by external carotid arteries through the transdural communicating arteries. Every AVM drained into deep or cortical cerebral veins. These findings suggest that the hyperangiogenic character of moyamoya disease occasionally induces the development of acquired arteriovenous shunts that mimic AVM.

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Hiromichi Ando, Masanao Saio, Noriyuki Tamakawa, Naoyuki Ohe, Takashi Nakayama, Hai Yu, Yasuhiko Kaku, Toru Iwama, Jun Shinoda, Noboru Sakai and Tsuyoshi Takami

Object. It is well known that the central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically privileged site. To characterize CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) recovered from the CNS, the authors compared these cells with TILs recovered from subcutaneous tissue by using a B7.1 gene—modified tumor implantation model.

Methods. The authors established a B7.1 gene—modified EL4 murine lymphoma cell line (EL4-B7.1) and implanted the cells into the CNS to observe the duration of tumor-free survival. Although EL4-B7.1 cells were completely rejected in a subcutaneous implantation model, 40% of animals died after the CNS implantation (all animals in which the parent tumor was implanted died within 16 days). Therefore, the authors isolated TILs from each implantation site and analyzed the expressions of activation antigens CD25 and CD69 by performing the anti-CD8 magnetic beads separation method and flow cytometric analysis. After implantation of the parent tumor, there was no difference in the number of TILs from each site (CD25 1.7–3.2%, CD69 21.9–34.3%). After implantation of the B7.1-modified tumor, the CD25-expressing TIL population from the subcutaneous site was 4.68 times higher than that from the CNS site (17.8% compared with 3.8%). Based on these findings, the authors used a mitomycin C—treated EL4-B7.1 subcutaneous vaccination with various protocols. Vaccination before tumor challenge was sufficient to prevent the development of the tumor. For animals with established tumor, the vaccination protocol was able to prolong host survival (p = 0.0053).

Conclusions. The data clearly demonstrate that the CNS environment fails to activate CD8+ TILs fully. These are the first data indicating in detail a difference between CD8+ TILs from the CNS and those from other sites based on a B7.1-modified tumor model.

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Hiroaki Takei, Jun Shinoda, Soko Ikuta, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Yuka Ikegame, Makoto Okada, Takeshi Ito, Yoshitaka Asano, Kazutoshi Yokoyama, Noriyuki Nakayama, Hirohito Yano and Toru Iwama


Positron emission tomography (PET) is important in the noninvasive diagnostic imaging of gliomas. There are many PET studies on glioma diagnosis based on the 2007 WHO classification; however, there are no studies on glioma diagnosis using the new classification (the 2016 WHO classification). Here, the authors investigated the relationship between uptake of 11C-methionine (MET), 11C-choline (CHO), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on PET imaging and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status (wild-type [IDH-wt] or mutant [IDH-mut]) in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors according to the 2016 WHO classification.


In total, 105 patients with newly diagnosed cerebral gliomas (6 diffuse astrocytomas [DAs] with IDH-wt, 6 DAs with IDH-mut, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas [AAs] with IDH-wt, 24 AAs with IDH-mut, 26 glioblastomas [GBMs] with IDH-wt, 5 GBMs with IDH-mut, 19 oligodendrogliomas [ODs], and 12 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas [AOs]) were included. All OD and AO patients had both IDH-mut and 1p/19q codeletion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the tumor/mean SUV of normal cortex (T/N) ratios for MET, CHO, and FDG were calculated, and the mean T/N ratios of DA, AA, and GBM with IDH-wt and IDH-mut were compared. The diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing gliomas with IDH-wt from those with IDH-mut was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the mean T/N ratios for the 3 PET tracers.


There were significant differences in the mean T/N ratios for all 3 PET tracers between the IDH-wt and IDH-mut groups of all histological classifications (p < 0.001). Among the 27 gliomas with mean T/N ratios higher than the cutoff values for all 3 PET tracers, 23 (85.2%) were classified into the IDH-wt group using ROC analysis. In DA, there were no significant differences in the T/N ratios for MET, CHO, and FDG between the IDH-wt and IDH-mut groups. In AA, the mean T/N ratios of all 3 PET tracers in the IDH-wt group were significantly higher than those in the IDH-mut group (p < 0.01). In GBM, the mean T/N ratio in the IDH-wt group was significantly higher than that in the IDH-mut group for both MET (p = 0.034) and CHO (p = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the ratio for FDG.


PET imaging using MET, CHO, and FDG was suggested to be informative for preoperatively differentiating gliomas according to the 2016 WHO classification, particularly for differentiating IDH-wt and IDH-mut tumors.