Lymphangioma localized to the bones of the skull base is rare. The authors report herein the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with lymphangioma of the bone, localized to the skull base and leading to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea with meningitis. Neuroimaging demonstrated lytic destruction with a cyst in the right middle skull base. The patient was successfully treated with resection of the tumor and prevention of CSF leakage. Histopathological examination revealed a lymphangioma. An enlarging lymphangioma can lead to bone destruction. A differential diagnosis of a lytic lesion for a cyst at the skull base is important for proper case management.
Eiji Ito, Kiyoshi Saito, Tetsuya Nagatani, Masaaki Teranishi, Yuzuru Kamei, Shunjiro Yagi, Takashi Kawabe, Norihiro Niimi and Jun Yoshida
Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Toshiyuki Tsuboi, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Shiro Miyata, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Osamu Takahashi, Rihee Takeda, Sadahisa Tokuda and Rokuya Tanikawa
Only a few previous studies have investigated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after surgical treatment in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Given the improvement in long-term outcomes of embolization, more extensive data are needed concerning the true rupture rates after microsurgery in order to provide reliable information for treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.
Data from 702 consecutive patients harboring 852 surgically treated UIAs were evaluated. Surgical treatments included neck clipping (complete or incomplete), coating/wrapping, trapping, proximal occlusion, and bypass surgery. Clippable UIAs were defined as UIAs treated by complete neck clipping. The annual incidence of postoperative SAH and risk factors for SAH were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models.
The patients’ median age was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR] 56–71 years). Of 852 UIAs, 767 were clippable and 85 were not. The mean duration of follow-up was 731 days (SD 380 days). During 1708 aneurysm years, there were 4 episodes of SAH, giving an overall average annual incidence rate of 0.23% (95% CI 0.12%–0.59%) and an average annual incidence rate of 0.065% (95% CI 0.0017%–0.37%) for clippable UIAs (1 episode of SAH, 1552 aneurysm-years). Basilar artery location (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 23, 95% CI 2.0–255, p = 0.0012) and unclippable UIA status (adjusted HR 15, 95% CI 1.1–215, p = 0.046) were significantly related to postoperative SAH. An excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) was achieved in 816 (95.7%) of 852 cases overall and in 748 (98%) of 767 clippable UIAs at 12 months.
In this large case series, microsurgical treatment of UIAs was found to be safe and effective. Aneurysm location and unclippable morphologies were related to postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.
Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Yuto Hatano, Takanori Miyazaki, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda and Rokuya Tanikawa
It is well known that larger aneurysm size is a risk factor for poor outcome after surgical treatment of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms (USIAs). However, the authors have occasionally observed poor outcome in the surgical treatment of small USIAs and hypothesized that size ratio has a negative impact on outcome. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of size ratio on outcome in the surgical treatment of USIAs.
Prospectively collected clinical and radiological data of 683 consecutive patients harboring 683 surgically treated USIAs were evaluated. Dome-to-neck ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum width of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter. The aspect ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum perpendicular height of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter of the aneurysm. The size ratio was calculated by dividing the maximum aneurysm diameter (height or width, mm) by the average parent artery diameter (mm). Neurological worsening was defined as an increase in modified Rankin Scale score of 1 or more points at 12 months. Clinical and radiological variables were compared between patients with and without neurological worsening.
The median patient age was 64 years (IQR 56–71 years), and 528 (77%) patients were female. The median maximum size, dome-to-neck ratio, aspect ratio, and size ratio were 4.7 mm (IQR 3.6–6.7 mm), 1.2 (IQR 1.0–1.4), 1.0 (IQR 0.76–1.3), and 1.9 (IQR 1.4–2.8), respectively. The size ratio was significantly correlated with maximum size (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), dome-to-neck ratio (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001), and aspect ratio (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the specific USIA location (paraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery: OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.6–15, p < 0.0001; and basilar artery: OR 8.4, 95% CI 2.8–25, p < 0.0001), size ratio (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6, p = 0.021), and postoperative ischemic lesion (OR 9.4, 95% CI 4.4–19, p < 0.0001) were associated with neurological worsening (n = 52, 7.6%), and other characteristics showed no significant differences.
The present study showed that size ratio, and not other morphological parameters, was a risk factor for 12-month neurological worsening in surgically treated patients with USIAs. The size ratio should be further studied in a large, prospective observational cohort to predict neurological worsening in the surgical treatment of USIAs.