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Akira Matsumura, Takashi Namikawa, Minori Kato, Yusuke Hori, Noriaki Hidaka, and Hiroaki Nakamura


The object of this study was to analyze the prevalence of postoperative coronal imbalance (CIB) and related factors in patients with adult lumbar scoliosis.


This was a retrospective single-center study of data from patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) who had undergone corrective surgery performed by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age at surgery > 40 years, 2) Cobb angles of the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve > 40°, 3) upper instrumented vertebra of T9 or T10, 4) lowest instrumented vertebra of L5 or the pelvis, and 5) minimum 2-year follow-up period. Radiographic parameters were measured before surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and at the latest follow-up. Curve flexibility was also assessed using side bending radiographs. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the 22-Item Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) and the SF-36. CIB was considered to have occurred if the C7 plumbline was more than 2.5 cm lateral to the central sacral vertical line (i.e., coronal vertical axis [CVA] > 2.5 cm) at the final follow-up. Parameters between the patients with (CIB group) and without (coronal balance [CB] group) CIB were compared, and factors related to CIB were evaluated.


From among 66 consecutively treated ASD patients, a total of 37 patients (mean age at surgery 66.3 years, average follow-up 63 months) met the study inclusion criteria. CIB was found in 6 patients at the final follow-up (16.2%), and the CVA of all patients in the CIB group shifted to the convex side of the TL/L curve. A comparative analysis between the CB and CIB groups, respectively, at the final follow-up indicated the following factors were related to CIB: lumbosacral (LS) curve, 11.0°/16.5° (p = 0.02); LS correction rate (CR), 61%/47% (p = 0.02); and CR ratio (LS vs TL/L), 0.93/0.67 (p = 0.0002). Regarding clinical outcomes, the satisfaction domain of the SRS-22 (CB 4.4 vs CIB 3.5) showed a significant difference between the CIB and CB groups (p = 0.02), and patients in the CB group tended to score better on the pain domain (CB 4.3 vs CIB 3.7), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.06).


Postoperative CIB negatively impacted patients’ HRQOL. An imbalanced correction ratio between the TL/L and LS curves may cause postoperative CIB. Therefore, adequate correction of the LS curve may prevent postoperative CIB.

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Akira Matsumura, Takashi Namikawa, Minori Kato, Tomonori Ozaki, Yusuke Hori, Noriaki Hidaka, and Hiroaki Nakamura

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical results of posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with a rod rotation (RR) and to evaluate the segmental corrective effect of a TLIF using CT imaging. The medical records of 15 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar kyphoscoliosis (DLKS) who had undergone posterior spinal corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR technique and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic parameters were evaluated using plain radiographs, and segmental correction was evaluated using CT imaging. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) and the SF-36.

The mean follow-up period was 46.7 months, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 60.7 years. The mean total SRS-22 score was 2.9 before surgery and significantly improved to 4.0 at the latest follow-up. The physical functioning, role functioning (physical), and social functioning subcategories of the SF-36 were generally improved at the latest follow-up, although the changes in these scores were not statistically significant. The bodily pain, vitality, and mental health subcategories were significantly improved at the latest follow-up (p < 0.05).

Three complications occurred in 3 patients (20%). The Cobb angle of the lumbar curve was reduced to 20.3° after surgery. The overall correction rate was 66.4%. The pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis (preoperative/postoperative = 31.5°/4.3°), pelvic tilt (29.2°/18.9°), and sagittal vertical axis (78.3/27.6 mm) were improved after surgery and remained so throughout the follow-up. Computed tomography image analysis suggested that a 1-level TLIF can result in 10.9° of scoliosis correction and 6.8° of lordosis.

Posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR on patients with DLKS can provide effective correction in the coronal plane but allows only limited sagittal correction.