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Kazuhide Furuya, Lidong Zhu, Nobutaka Kawahara, Osamu Abe and Takaaki Kirino

Object. Although brain tissue may be protected by previous preconditioning, the temporal evolution of infarcts in such preconditioned brain tissue during focal cerebral ischemia is largely unknown. Therefore, in this study the authors engaged in long-term observation with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to clarify the difference in lesion evolution between tolerant and nontolerant conditions.

Methods. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.9 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to induce cross-ischemic tolerance. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced 72 hours later in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Serial brain MR images were obtained 6 hours, 24 hours, 4 days, 7 days, and 14 days after ischemia by using a 7.05-tesla unit.

Lesion-reducing effects were evident 6 hours after ischemia in the LPS group. Preconditioning with LPS does not merely delay but prevents ischemic cell death by reducing lesion size. Lesion reduction was a sustained effect noted up to 14 days after ischemia. Reduction of local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) in the periinfarct area was significantly inhibited in the LPS group, which was correlated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression.

Conclusions. Significant preservation of lCBF in the periinfarct area, which is relevant to sustained upregulation of eNOS, could be a candidate for the long-term inhibiting effect on infarct evolution in the LPS-induced tolerant state.

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Keisuke Maruyama, Masahiro Shin, Masao Tago, Hiroki Kurita, Nobutaka Kawahara, Akio Morita and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Appropriate management of hemorrhage after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain is poorly understood, although a certain proportion of patients suffer from hemorrhage.

Methods

Among 500 patients observed for 1 to 183 months (median 70 months) after GKS, 32 patients (6.4%) suffered a hemorrhage. Hemorrhage developed even after angiographically documented obliteration of the AVM in five (2%) of 250 patients followed for 1 to 133 months (median 75 months) post-GKS. These patients had been treated according to their pathological condition. Treatment of these patients and their outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. As a management strategy in patients with preobliteration hemorrhage, the intracerebral hematoma and the AVM nidus were removed in four patients, and chronic encapsulated hematoma was removed in three. Among 11 patients who were conservatively treated, AVMs were ultimately obliterated in five, including three patients who underwent repeated GKS. Intracerebral hematoma from angiographically documented obliterated AVMs was radically resected in two patients, including one who also underwent aspiration of an accompanying symptomatic cyst. Intraoperative bleeding was easily controlled in these patients. Outcomes after hemorrhage, measured with the modified Rankin Scale, were significantly better in patients with postobliteration hemorrhage than in those with preobliteration hemorrhage (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Various types of hemorrhagic complications after GKS for AVMs can be properly managed based on an understanding of each pathological condition. Although a small risk of bleeding remains after angiographically demonstrated obliteration, surgery for such AVMs is safe, and the patient outcomes are more favorable. Radical resection to prevent further hemorrhage is recommended for ruptured AVMs after obliteration because such AVMs can cause repeated hemorrhages.

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Nobutaka Kawahara, Tomio Sasaki, Takahiro Asakage, Kazunari Nakao, Masashi Sugasawa, Hirotaka Asato, Isao Koshima and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Primary temporal bone malignancy is a rare form of tumor for which the therapeutic strategy remains controversial. In this study, the authors reviewed their experience with radical temporal bone resection (TBR) of such lesions and analyzed the long-term results to provide treatment recommendations.

Methods

Between 1994 and 2006, 17 patients (10 men and 7 women) underwent total or subtotal TBR for primary temporal bone malignancies. Tumors were graded according to the University of Pittsburgh system. The effects of surgical margins and tumor extensions on patient survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method.

Results

All tumors, except 1, were graded T4 (most advanced). Subtotal TBR was performed in 14 patients, and total TBR was performed in 3. The surgical margin was tumor negative in 10 patients and tumor positive in 7. For large tumors extending into the infratemporal fossa or encroaching on the jugular foramen, orbitozygomatic (3 patients) and posterior transjugular (4 patients) approaches were combined with the standard approach, and en bloc resection with a negative margin was achieved in all cases but 1. The follow-up time ranged from 0.3–11.6 years (mean 3.3 years). The 5-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival rates were 67.5 and 60.1%, respectively. When a negative surgical margin was achieved, the survival rates improved to 100 and 89%, respectively.

Conclusions

The neurosurgical skull base technique could improve the probability of en bloc resection with a tumor-free margin for extensive temporal bone malignancies, which would cure a subset of patients. The active participation of neurosurgeons would improve patient care in this field.

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Intracranial extracerebral glioneuronal heterotopia

Case report and review of the literature

Soichi Oya, Nobutaka Kawahara, Shigeki Aoki, Naoto Hayashi, Junji Shibahara, Masafumi Izumi and Takaaki Kirino

P The authors report a case of intracranial extracerebral glioneuronal heterotopia (IEGH) in an infant. Glioneuronal heterotopias are rare congenital disorders that arise in the head, face, spine, and thoracic cavity. They consist of nodular accumulations of neuronal and glial cells that have developed abnormally, ranging in size from small lesions to large masses. Among heterotopias, IEGHs are relatively rare. They cause various clinical symptoms, depending on their size and location. The neuroimaging studies, histological examinations, and intraoperative findings presented provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. The findings support the separation and detachment theory, which proposes that IEGHs originate from a third telencephalon that erroneously forms between the 4th and 6th week of embryogenesis. More detailed case reports are necessary to understand fully the pathogenesis of IEGHs.

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Tomohiro Inoue, Nobutaka Kawahara, Junji Shibahara, Tomohiko Masumoto, Kenichi Usami and Takaaki Kirino

✓ Neurenteric cyst is a developmental malformation found mainly in the spinal canal. The authors report on a 47-year-old man with a neurenteric cyst of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) who presented with progressive hearing disturbance and facial palsy. The tumor was located extradurally with marked destruction of the petrous bone around the internal auditory canal and demonstrated irregular and heterogeneous high-intensity signals on T1- and T2-weighted on MR images, which is atypical for neurenteric cysts. The pathological findings in samples obtained after resection disclosed a single epithelial layer (a feature of neurenteric cyst), which was accompanied by marked xanthogranulomatous changes. Although several neurenteric cysts have been reported in the CPA, extradural lesions with unusual imaging features and marked bone destruction have not been reported previously. This benign developmental lesion should be considered, although it is extremely rare, in patients harboring an extradural temporal bone tumor around the CPA.

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Kazuhide Furuya, Nobutaka Kawahara, Akio Morita, Toshimitsu Momose, Shigeki Aoki and Takaaki Kirino

✓ Superficial temporal artery—middle cerebral artery (STA—MCA) anastomosis is a standard surgical therapeutic option in patients with moyamoya disease. Most patients experience improvement in their clinical symptoms immediately after surgery. The authors report on the case of a 39-year-old man with moyamoya disease who suffered from temporary and frequent neurological deterioration after undergoing a left STA—MCA anastomosis. Hemodilution and hypervolemia therapies did not improve his course. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission tomography scans demonstrated focal intense accumulation of the tracer in the frontal operculum on the side of the surgery. Although diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated no abnormalities except for the postoperative change, perfusion-weighted MR images and MR digital subtraction angiography revealed focal hyperperfusion in the left frontal operculum where the cerebral perfusion reserve was severely disturbed preoperatively. This evidence strongly supports the notion that focal hyperperfusion observed after STA—MCA anastomosis could occur in the poor perfusion reserve area preoperatively and could cause temporary neurological deterioration.

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Kazuhide Furuya, Nobutaka Kawahara, Kensuke Kawai, Tomikatsu Toyoda, Keiichiro Maeda and Takaaki Kirino

Object. The intraluminal suture model for focal cerebral ischemia is increasingly used, but not without problems. It causes hypothalamic injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and inadvertent premature reperfusion. The patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) potentially affects the size of the infarct. In addition, survival at 1 week is unstable. The authors operated on C57Black6 mice to produce proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) so that drawbacks with the suture model could be circumvented.

Methods. The MCA segment just proximal to the olfactory branch was occluded either permanently or temporarily. After 1 hour of MCAO the infarct volume was significantly smaller than that found after 2 hours or in instances of permanent MCAO. The differences were assessed at 24 hours and 7 days after surgery (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The patency of the PCoA, as visualized using carbon black solution, did not correlate with the infarct size. Neurologically, the 1- and 2-hour MCAO groups displayed significantly less severe deficits than the permanent MCAO group on Days 1, 4, and 7 (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01, respectively). Although the infarct size, neurological deficits, and body weight loss were more severe in the permanent MCAO group, the survival rate at Day 7 was 80%.

Conclusions. This model provides not only a robust infarct size (which is not affected by the patency of the PCoA), but also a better survival rate.

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Masahiro Shin, Nobutaka Kawahara, Keisuke Maruyama, Masao Tago, Keisuke Ueki and Takaaki Kirino

Object. Radiosurgery has been widely adopted for the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in which the practical endpoint is angiographic evidence of obliteration, presumed to be consistent with elimination of the risk of hemorrhage. To test this unverified assumption, the authors followed 236 radiosurgery-treated AVMs between 1 and 133 months (median 77 months) after angiographic evidence of obliteration.

Methods. Four patients experienced hemorrhage between 16 and 51 months after angiographic confirmation of AVM obliteration, and two underwent resection. The histological findings in these patients showed occlusion of the AVM by thickening of the intimal layer with dense hyalinization as well as a small amount of residual AVM vessels and a tiny vasculature. The risks of hemorrhage from these presumaby obliterated AVMs were 0.3% for the annual bleeding risk and 2.2% for the cumulative risk over 10 years. Continuous enhancement of the nidus on computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was the only significant factor positively associated with hemorrhage in the statistical analysis (p = 0.0212).

Conclusions. Because the study was based on limited follow-up data, its significance for defining predictive features of hemorrhage after angiographic evidence of obliteration is still indeterminable. Nevertheless, disappearance of the AVM on angiography after radiosurgery does not always indicate total elimination of the disease, especially when CT or MR imaging continues to demonstrate an enhancing lesion. The authors therefore recommend continual follow up even after evidence of AVM obliteration on angiography.

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Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Takanobu Kaido, Yuu Kaneko, Masaki Iwasaki, Nobutaka Kawahara and Taisuke Otsuki

Surgical treatment of the insula is notorious for its high probability of motor complications, particularly when resecting the superoposterior part. Ischemic damage to the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata has been regarded as the cause of these complications, resulting from occlusion of the perforating arteries to the pyramidal tract through the insular cortex. The authors describe a strategy in which a small piece of gray matter is spared at the bottom of the periinsular sulcus, where the perforating arteries pass en route to the pyramidal tract, in order to avoid these complications. This method was successfully applied in 3 patients harboring focal cortical dysplasia in the posterior insula and frontoparietal operculum surrounding the periinsular sulcus. None of the patients developed permanent postoperative motor deficits, and seizure control was achieved in all 3 cases. The method described in this paper can be adopted for functional preservation of the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata when resecting epileptogenic pathologies involving insular and opercular regions.