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Nisha Gadgil, Sandi Lam, Monika Pyarali, Michael Paldino, I-Wen Pan and Robert C. Dauser

OBJECTIVE

Numerous surgical procedures facilitate revascularization of the ischemic brain in patients with moyamoya disease. Dural inversion is a technique in which flaps of dura mater centered around the middle meningeal artery are inverted, encouraging the formation of a rich collateral blood supply. This procedure has been used in combination with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis for more than 20 years at the authors’ institution for the treatment of pediatric moyamoya disease. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes for a cohort of consecutive pediatric moyamoya patients undergoing dural inversion.

METHODS

Clinical and radiographic data on patients who had undergone dural inversion in the period from 1997 to 2016 were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to assess the risk of postoperative stroke, functional outcome, and the angiographic degree of revascularization.

RESULTS

Dural inversion was performed on 169 hemispheres in 102 patients. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Six patients (3.6% of hemispheres) suffered postoperative ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Overall mortality was 1.0%. Good postoperative neurological status (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score ≤ 2) was observed in 90 patients (88%); preoperative and postoperative mRS scores showed significant improvement (p < 0.001). Eighty-six percent of hemispheres had Matsushima grade A or B revascularization. Younger age was associated with postoperative stroke and poor functional outcome. Patients with secondary moyamoya syndrome had a significantly worse radiographic outcome. The cumulative 5-year Kaplan-Meier risk for stroke was 6.4%.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural inversion is a useful technique of cerebral revascularization in pediatric moyamoya disease. A 20-year experience demonstrates the safety and efficacy of this technique with a relatively low rate of postoperative stroke, good functional outcomes, and favorable angiographic results.

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Aditya Vedantam, Katie M. Stormes, Nisha Gadgil, Stephen F. Kralik, Guillermo Aldave and Sandi K. Lam

OBJECTIVE

Resection of posterior fossa tumors in children may be associated with persistent neurological deficits. It is unclear if these neurological deficits are associated with persistent structural damage to the cerebellar pathways. The purpose of this research was to define longitudinal changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in white matter cerebellar tracts and the clinical correlates of these metrics in children undergoing resection of posterior fossa tumors.

METHODS

Longitudinal brain DTI was performed in a cohort of pediatric patients who underwent resection of posterior fossa tumors. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs) was measured on preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up DTI. Early postoperative (< 48 hours) and longer-term follow-up neurological deficits (mutism, ataxia, and extraocular movement dysfunction) were documented. Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences in FA values based on presence or absence of neurological deficits. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

Twenty children (mean age 6.1 ± 4.1 years [SD], 12 males and 8 females) were included in this study. Follow-up DTI was performed at a median duration of 14.3 months after surgery, and the median duration of follow-up was 19.7 months. FA of the left SCP was significantly reduced on postoperative DTI in comparison with preoperative DTI (0.44 ± 0.07 vs 0.53 ± 0.1, p = 0.003). Presence of ataxia at follow-up was associated with a persistent reduction in the left SCP FA on follow-up DTI (0.43 ± 0.1 vs 0.55 ± 0.1, p = 0.016). Patients with early postoperative mutism who did not recover at follow-up had significantly decreased FA of the left SCP on early postoperative DTI in comparison with those who recovered (0.38 ± 0.05 vs 0.48 ± 0.06, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

DTI after resection of posterior fossa tumors in children shows that persistent reduction of SCP FA is associated with ataxia at follow-up.