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Ning Qiao, Xiaocui Yang, Chuzhong Li, Guofo Ma, Jie Kang, Chunhui Liu, Lei Cao, Yazhuo Zhang, and Songbai Gui

OBJECTIVE

Due to the proximity of craniopharyngioma to the optic apparatus, one of the most common complications after surgery is visual deterioration. Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP), as a means of real-time visual function monitoring, has been integrated into transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma to predict postoperative visual outcome. Compared with pituitary tumor, craniopharyngioma often adheres to optic nerves, with increased risk of postoperative visual impairment. Furthermore, extended endoscopic endonasal surgery (EEES) can provide direct visualization of the surgical plane between the craniopharyngioma and the optic nerves, which contributes to analysis of the mechanism of real-time VEP changes during surgery. Therefore, VEP monitoring applied during EEES for craniopharyngioma may have more clinical value. However, only 9 patients who underwent EEES with VEP monitoring for craniopharyngioma have been sporadically reported to date. In this paper, the authors present the largest series to date analyzing the clinical value of VEP to predict postoperative visual outcome in adult patients with craniopharyngioma.

METHODS

Sixty-five adult patients who underwent EEES with intraoperative VEP monitoring for primary craniopharyngioma were retrospectively reviewed. The association between changes in VEP amplitude and postoperative visual outcome was determined. In addition, other potential prognostic factors with regard to postoperative visual outcomes were included in the analysis.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved in 59 patients (90.8%). Reproducible and stable VEP was recorded in 128 of 130 eyes (98.5%). During surgery, VEP remained stable in 108 eyes, 10 (9.3%) of which had new visual acuity (VA) and/or visual field (VF) defects after surgery. Transient VEP decrease was recorded in 15 eyes, 4 (26.7%) of which had visual deterioration. Of the 5 eyes with permanent VEP decrease, 3 (60%) experienced postoperative visual impairment. Permanent VEP decrease (OR 19.868, p = 0.007) and tight adhesion (OR 6.104, p = 0.040) were independent adverse factors for postoperative VA deterioration. Tight adhesion (OR 7.150, p = 0.002) and larger tumor volume (OR 1.066, p = 0.001) were significant risk factors for postoperative VF defects.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative VEP monitoring can serve as a real-time warning to guide surgeons to avoid postoperative visual impairment. It effectively predicted VA changes in adult patients with craniopharyngioma after EEES. Tight adhesion and larger tumor volume were also strong predictors of postoperative visual impairment.

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Wanchen Dou, Ning Lin, Wenbin Ma, Yi Yang, Huijuan Zhu, Juan Sun, Wei Lian, Zhong Yang, Wuyi Li, and Renzhi Wang

✓The McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by a clinical triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait hyperpigmented macules, and hypersecretory endocrinopathies. Acromegaly is an uncommon manifestation of the endocrine disturbance associated with MAS, and the role of surgery in managing these cases has been a topic of debate. The authors present the case of a 35-year-old man with MAS who was also diagnosed with acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had an 18-year history of fibrous dysplasia involving the right frontal bone and ribs as well as multiple endocrinopathies, but no cutaneous hyperpigmented macules. An oral glucose tolerance test demonstrated partial suppression of plasma levels of growth hormone (GH). The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary tumor, performed with assistance of neuronavigation, and tolerated the procedure well. After the surgery, both prolactin and GH levels returned to normal. These results suggest that neuronavigation-assisted transsphenoidal surgery can safely remove pituitary adenomas associated with MAS and successfully treat the underlying endocrine abnormalities.

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Hongbin Cao, Zhiyan Xiao, Yin Zhang, Tiffany Kwong, Shabbar F. Danish, Joseph Weiner, Xiao Wang, Ning Yue, Zhitao Dai, Yu Kuang, Yongrui Bai, and Ke Nie

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to compare the dosimetric quality of hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in treating sizeable brain tumors across the following treatment platforms: GammaKnife (GK) Icon, CyberKnife (CK) G4, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam STx, double scattering proton therapy (DSPT) on the Mevion S250, and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) on the Varian ProBeam.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, stereotactic radiotherapy treatment plans were generated for 10 patients with sizeable brain tumors (> 3 cm in longest diameter) who had been treated with VMAT. Six treatment plans, 20–30 Gy in 5 fractions, were generated for each patient using the same constraints for each of the following radiosurgical methods: 1) GK, 2) CK, 3) coplanar arc VMAT (VMAT-C), 4) noncoplanar arc VMAT (VMAT-NC), 5) DSPT, and 6) IMPT. The coverage; conformity index; gradient index (GI); homogeneity index; mean and maximum point dose of organs at risk; total dose volume (V) in Gy to the normal brain for 2 Gy (V2), 5 Gy (V5), and 12 Gy (V12); and integral dose were compared across all platforms.

RESULTS

Among the 6 techniques, GK consistently produced a sharper dose falloff despite a greater central target dose. GK gave the lowest GI, with a mean of 2.7 ± 0.1, followed by CK (2.9 ± 0.1), VMAT-NC (3.1 ± 0.3), and VMAT-C (3.5 ± 0.3). The highest mean GIs for the proton beam treatments were 3.8 ± 0.4 for DSPT and 3.9 ± 0.4 for IMPT. The GK consistently targeted the lowest normal brain volume, delivering 5 to 12 Gy when treating relatively smaller- to intermediate-sized lesions (less than 15–20 cm3). Yet, the differences across the 6 modalities relative to GK decreased with the increase of target volume. In particular, the proton treatments delivered the lowest V5 to the normal brain when the target size was over 15–20 cm3 and also produced the lowest integral dose to the normal brain regardless of the target size.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides an insightful understanding of dosimetric quality from both photon and proton treatment across the most advanced stereotactic radiotherapy platforms.

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Ying Yu, Long Yan, Yake Lou, Rongrong Cui, Kaijiang Kang, Lingxian Jiang, Dapeng Mo, Feng Gao, Yongjun Wang, Xin Lou, Zhongrong Miao, and Ning Ma

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to identify predictors of intracranial in-stent restenosis (ISR) after stent placement in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected data from consecutive patients who suffered from symptomatic ICAS and underwent successful stent placement in Beijing Tiantan hospital. Eligible patients were classified into “ISR,” “indeterminate ISR,” or “no-ISR” groups by follow-up digital subtraction angiography or CT angiography. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the predictors of intracranial ISR after adjustments for age and sex. In addition, ISR and no-ISR patients were divided into two groups based on the strongest predictor, and the incidence of ISR, recurrent stroke, and symptomatic ISR was compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

A total of 511 eligible patients were included in the study: 80 ISR, 232 indeterminate ISR, and 199 no-ISR patients. Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; odds ratio [OR] 4.747, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.253–10.01, p < 0.001), Mori type B and C (Mori type B vs Mori type A, OR 3.119, 95% CI 1.093–8.896, p = 0.033; Mori type C vs Mori type A, OR 4.780, 95% CI 1.244–18.37, p = 0.023), coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 2.721, 95% CI 1.192–6.212, p = 0.017), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR; OR 1.474 95% CI 1.064–2.042, p = 0.020), residual stenosis (OR 1.050, 95% CI 1.022–1.080, p = 0.001) and concurrent intracranial tandem stenosis (OR 2.276, 95% CI 1.039–4.986, p = 0.040) synergistically contributed to the occurrence of intracranial ISR. Elevated hs-CRP (hs-CRP ≥ 3 mg/L) was the strongest predictor for ISR, and the incidence of ISR in the elevated hs-CRP group and normal hs-CRP group (hs-CRP < 3 mg/L) was 57.14% versus 21.52%, respectively, with recurrent stroke 44.64% versus 16.59%, and symptomatic ISR 41.07% versus 8.52%.

CONCLUSIONS

Elevated hs-CRP level, NLR, residual stenosis, Mori type B and C, CAD, and concurrent intracranial tandem stenosis are the main predictors of intracranial ISR, and elevated hs-CRP is crucially associated with recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic ICAS after intracranial stent implantation.

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Bing Zhao, Yu-Kui Wei, Gui-Lin Li, Yong-Ning Li, Yong Yao, Jun Kang, Wen-Bin Ma, Yi Yang, and Ren-Zhi Wang

Object

The standard transsphenoidal approach has been successfully used to resect most pituitary adenomas. However, as a result of the limited exposure provided by this procedure, complete surgical removal of pituitary adenomas with parasellar or retrosellar extension remains problematic. By additional bone removal of the cranial base, the extended transsphenoidal approach provides better exposure to the parasellar and clival region compared with the standard approach. The authors describe their surgical experience with the extended transsphenoidal approach to remove pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, cavernous sinus (CS), and clivus.

Methods

Retrospective analysis was performed in 126 patients with pituitary adenomas that were surgically treated via the extended transsphenoidal approach between September 1999 and March 2008. There were 55 male and 71 female patients with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 12–75 years). There were 82 cases of macroadenoma and 44 cases of giant adenoma.

Results

Gross-total resection was achieved in 78 patients (61.9%), subtotal resection in 43 (34.1%), and partial resection in 5 (4%). Postoperative complications included transient cerebrospinal rhinorrhea (7 cases), incomplete cranial nerve palsy (5), panhypopituitarism (5), internal carotid artery injury (2), monocular blindness (2), permanent diabetes insipidus (1), and perforation of the nasal septum (2). No intraoperative or postoperative death was observed.

Conclusions

The extended transsphenoidal approach provides excellent exposure to pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, CS, and clivus. This approach enhances the degree of tumor resection and keeps postoperative complications relatively low. However, radical resection of tumors that are firm, highly invasive to the CS, or invading multidirectionally remains a big challenge. This procedure not only allows better visualization of the tumor and the neurovascular structures but also provides significant working space under the microscope, which facilitates intraoperative manipulation. Preoperative imaging studies and new techniques such as the neuronavigation system and the endoscope improve the efficacy and safety of tumor resection.

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Zhikai Hou, Long Yan, Zhe Zhang, Jing Jing, Jinhao Lyu, Ferdinand K. Hui, Weilun Fu, Ying Yu, Rongrong Cui, Min Wan, Jia Song, Yongjun Wang, Zhongrong Miao, Xin Lou, and Ning Ma

OBJECTIVE

On the basis of the characteristics of occluded segments on high-resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (MR-VWI), the authors evaluated the role of high-resolution MR-VWI–guided endovascular recanalization for patients with symptomatic nonacute intracranial artery occlusion (ICAO).

METHODS

Consecutive patients with symptomatic nonacute ICAO that was refractory to aggressive medical treatment were prospectively enrolled and underwent endovascular recanalization. High-resolution MR-VWI was performed before the recanalization intervention. The characteristics of the occluded segments on MR-VWI, including signal intensity, occlusion morphology, occlusion angle, and occlusion length, were evaluated. Technical success was defined as arterial recanalization with modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3 and residual stenosis < 50%. Perioperative complications were recorded. The characteristics of the occluded segments on MR-VWI were compared between the recanalized group and the failure group.

RESULTS

Twenty-five patients with symptomatic nonacute ICAO that was refractory to aggressive medical treatment were consecutively enrolled from April 2020 to February 2021. Technical success was achieved in 19 patients (76.0%). One patient (4.0%) had a nondisabling ischemic stroke during the perioperative period. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that successful recanalization of nonacute ICAO was associated with occlusion with residual lumen (OR 0.057, 95% CI 0.004–0.735, p = 0.028) and shorter occlusion length (OR 0.853, 95% CI 0.737–0.989, p = 0.035).

CONCLUSIONS

The high-resolution MR-VWI modality could be used to guide endovascular recanalization for nonacute ICAO. Occlusion with residual lumen and shorter occlusion length on high-resolution MR-VWI were identified as predictors of technical success of endovascular recanalization for nonacute ICAO.