Jacques J. Lara-Reyna, Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Imali Perera, Nicholas Szerlip, Anastasios Giamouriadis, Nicole Savage, Therese Haussner, and Mark M. Souweidane
Removal of colloid cysts of the third ventricle using a purely endoscopic method has been established as a safe and advantageous technique. It is hypothesized that endoscopic removal in recurrent cases might pose more technical challenges and result in less success. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcomes of using a purely endoscopic approach for the management of recurrent colloid cysts compared to primary cysts.
A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients who underwent purely endoscopic removal of their colloid cyst. Descriptive statistics were compared for patients undergoing surgery for a recurrent cyst and those for a control cohort undergoing surgery for a primary cyst. Bivariate analysis was conducted using a Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables.
In total, 121 patients had a primary colloid cyst endoscopically removed and 10 patients had a total of 11 recurrent cysts removed. Recurrence or progression after surgery occurred in 3 (2.5%) cases in the primary cyst group and 2 (18.2%) cases in the recurrent cyst group. Symptomatic presentation during the follow-up period occurred in 6 (54.5%) cases in the recurrent cyst group versus 75 (62%) cases in the primary cyst group (p = 0.749). Two patients (20%) in the recurrent group had a second recurrence in a mean period of 30 months (1 patient at 15 and 1 patient at 45 months). One of these patients required a tertiary endoscopic removal 8 years after the second resection. No immediate postoperative complications or new morbidities were observed after repeat endoscopic surgery. The authors’ findings indicated a nonsignificant trend toward a higher recurrence rate (18.2% vs 2.5%, p = 0.055) and a decreased proportion of complete removal (90.9% vs 81.8%, p = 0.296) in the recurrent cyst group compared to the primary cyst group. However, a significantly higher rate of preoperative hydrocephalus was observed in the primary cyst group compared with the recurrent cyst group (63.6% vs 18.2%, p = 0.007).
Purely endoscopic approaches for the removal of recurrent colloid cysts of the third ventricle are feasible and equally safe compared with endoscopic removal of primary cysts. The study’s findings did not show a statistically significant difference in the rate of recurrence between the 2 groups. The proportion of patients with symptomatic cysts on presentation was lower in patients with recurrent cysts than in patients with primary cysts. Due to the high rate of complete removal with negligible morbidity, the authors continue to advocate for an endoscopic removal at the time of cyst recurrence.
Heather J McCrea, Jacques Lara-Reyna, Imali Perera, Rafael Uribe, Silky Chotai, Nicole Savage, Eliza H Hersh, Therese Haussner, and Mark M Souweidane
The rarity of colloid cysts in children makes it difficult to characterize this entity and offer meaningful advice on treatment. Infrequent case reports exist, but to date there has been no age-specific assessment. The purpose of this study was to define any differences between children and adults who are evaluated and treated for colloid cysts of the third ventricle.
Patients with colloid cysts were reviewed and stratified by age. Individuals ≤ 18 years of age were defined as pediatric patients and those > 18 years of age as adults. Clinical and radiographic data, treatment, and postoperative outcomes were compared between both groups. Bivariate analysis was conducted using the Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables.
Of 132 endoscopic resections (121 primary, 10 secondary, and 1 tertiary) of a colloid cyst, 9 (6.8%) were performed in pediatric patients (mean age 14.1 years, range 9–18 years) and 123 (93.2%) were performed in adult patients (mean age 43.8 years, range 19–73 years). Cases were found incidentally more commonly in pediatric than adult patients (66.7% vs 37.4%, p > 0.05), and pediatric patients had lower rates of hydrocephalus than adult patients (11.1% vs 63.4%, p < 0.05). Acute decompensation at presentation was found in 8 adults (6.5%) but no children. Complete cyst removal (88.9% vs 90.2%, p > 0.05) and length of stay (1.6 days vs 2.9 days, p > 0.05) were not significantly different between the groups. Postoperative complications (6.5% in adults, 0% in children) and recurrence (2.4% in adults, 0% in children) were rare in both groups, and there were no treatment-related deaths. The mean postoperative radiological follow-up was longer in pediatric patients (45 months, range 4–89 months) than adults (44.1 months, range 1–171 months).
While differences exist between children and adults regarding colloid cyst presentation, these are in keeping with the predicted evolution of a slow-growing lesion. Consistent with this observation, children had lower rates of hydrocephalus and a smaller mean maximal cyst diameter. Contrary to the published literature, however, sudden deterioration was not observed in pediatric patients but occurred in adult patients. In this limited pediatric sample size, the authors have not recorded any postoperative complications or recurrences to date. These encouraging results with endoscopic removal may positively impact future decisions related to children given their protracted life expectancy and projected rates of progression.