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Weiming Liu, Nicolaas A. Bakker and Rob J. M. Groen

Object

In this paper the authors systematically evaluate the results of different surgical procedures for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).

Methods

The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other databases were scrutinized according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) statement, after which only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs were included. At least 2 different neurosurgical procedures in the management of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) had to be evaluated. Included studies were assessed for the risk of bias. Recurrence rates, complications, and outcome including mortality were taken as outcome measures. Statistical heterogeneity in each meta-analysis was assessed using the T2 (tau-squared), I2, and chi-square tests. The DerSimonian-Laird method was used to calculate the summary estimates using the fixed-effect model in meta-analysis.

Results

Of the 297 studies identified, 19 RCTs were included. Of them, 7 studies evaluated the use of postoperative drainage, of which the meta-analysis showed a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI 0.21–0.60; p < 0.001) in favor of drainage. Four studies compared twist drill and bur hole procedures. No significant differences between the 2 methods were present, but heterogeneity was considered to be significant. Three studies directly compared the use of irrigation before drainage. A fixed-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled OR of 0.49 (95% CI 0.21–1.14; p = 0.10) in favor of irrigation. Two studies evaluated postoperative posture. The available data did not reveal a significant advantage in favor of the postoperative supine posture. Regarding positioning of the catheter used for drainage, it was shown that a frontal catheter led to a better outcome. One study compared duration of drainage, showing that 48 hours of drainage was as effective as 96 hours of drainage.

Conclusions

Postoperative drainage has the advantage of reducing recurrence without increasing complications. The use of a bur hole or twist drill does not seem to make any significant difference in recurrence rates or other outcome measures. It seems that irrigation may lead to a better outcome. These results may lead to more standardized procedures.

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Nicolaas A. Bakker, J. Marc C. Van Dijk, Steven Immenga, Michiel Wagemakers and Jan D. M. Metzemaekers

Object

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN, focusing on outcome, risk factors, and complication rates.

Methods

Between 1990 and 2012, a total of 33 consecutive patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN at the University Medical Center Groningen. The authors performed a retrospective chart review and telephone interviews. Risk factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis.

Results

After 12 months of follow-up, 22 (67%) operations were successful, of which 19 patients were completely free of pain without medication. With multivariate analysis significant risk factors for success were older age (OR 1.11, p < 0.01) and direct absence of pain after repeat MVD (OR 25.2, p < 0.01). Previous neurodestructive procedures did not influence success rates. Facial numbness occurred in 9 patients (27%), while other morbidity was minimal. There was no mortality.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that repeat MVD is a feasible therapeutic option with good chances of success, even in patients who have undergone neurodestructive procedures. Complication rates, particularly facial numbness, can be avoided if only a limited neurolysis is performed.

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Nicolaas A. Bakker, Rob J. M. Groen, Mahrouz Foumani, Maarten Uyttenboogaart, Omid S. Eshghi, Jan D. M. Metzemaekers, Natasja Lammers, Gert-Jan Luijckx and J. Marc C. Van Dijk

Object

A repeat digital subtraction angiography (DSA) study of the cranial vasculature is routinely performed in patients with diffuse nonperimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after negative baseline CT angiography (CTA) and DSA studies. However, DSA carries a low but substantial risk of neurological complications. Therefore, the authors evaluated the added value of repeat DSA in patients with initial angiographically negative diffuse nonperimesencephalic SAH.

Methods

A systematic review of the contemporary literature was performed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Studies from January 2000 onward were reviewed since imaging modalities have much improved over the last decade. A pooled analysis was conducted to identify the detection rate of repeat DSA. In addition, the diagnostic yield of repeat DSAs in a prospectively maintained single-center series of 1051 consecutive patients with SAH was added to the analysis.

Results

An initial search of the literature yielded 179 studies, 8 of which met the selection criteria. Another 45 patients from the authors' institution were included in the study, providing 368 patients eligible for the pooled analysis. In 37 patients (10.0%, 95% CI 7.4%–13.6%) an aneurysm was detected on repeat DSA. The timing of the repeat DSA varied from 1 to 6 weeks after the initial DSA. The use of 3D techniques was poorly described among these studies, and no direct comparisons between CTA and DSA were made.

Conclusions

Repeat DSA is still warranted in patients with a diffuse nonperimesencephalic SAH and negative initial assessment. However, the exact timing of the repeat DSA is subject to debate.

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Carlina E. van Donkelaar, Nicolaas A. Bakker, Nic J. G. M. Veeger, Maarten Uyttenboogaart, Jan D. M. Metzemaekers, Omid Eshghi, Aryan Mazuri, Mahrouz Foumani, Gert-Jan Luijckx, Rob J. M. Groen and J. Marc C. van Dijk

OBJECTIVE

Currently, early prediction of outcome after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) lacks accuracy despite multiple studies addressing this issue. The clinical condition of the patient on admission as assessed using the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading scale is currently considered the gold standard. However, the timing of the clinical assessment is subject to debate, as is the contribution of additional predictors. The aim of this study was to identify either the conventional WFNS grade on admission or the WFNS grade after neurological resuscitation (rWFNS) as the most accurate predictor of outcome after SAH.

METHODS

This prospective observational cohort study included 1620 consecutive patients with SAH admitted between January 1998 and December 2014 at our university neurovascular center. The primary outcome measure was a poor modified Rankin Scale score at the 2-month follow-up. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to test discriminative performance of the final model. An AUC of > 0.8 was regarded as indicative of a model with good prognostic value.

RESULTS

Poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 4–6) was observed in 25% of the patients. The rWFNS grade was a significantly stronger predictor of outcome than the admission WFNS grade. The rWFNS grade was significantly associated with poor outcome (p < 0.001) as well as increasing age (p < 0.001), higher modified Fisher grade (p < 0.001), larger aneurysm size (p < 0.001), and the presence of an intracerebral hematoma (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8; p = 0.002). The final model had an AUC of 0.87 (95% CI 0.85–0.89), which indicates excellent prognostic value regarding the discrimination between poor and good outcome after SAH.

CONCLUSIONS

In clinical practice and future research, neurological assessment and grading of patients should be performed using the rWFNS to obtain the best representation of their clinical condition.