Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 124 items for

  • Author or Editor: Nicholas Theodore x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Daniel Lubelski and Nicholas Theodore

Restricted access

Luis M. Tumialán and Nicholas Theodore

Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a rare clinical entity typically associated with complete neurological deficit. The inherent mechanics of this fracture-dislocation pattern contorts the vertebral arteries in such a way that it may result in dissection or compromised flow through those vessels. Thus, intimal injury or thrombus from stasis of flow may result. Reduction of the spondyloptosis restores flow to the vertebral arteries, but it also may mobilize thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection within the previously contorted vessel.

The authors review their experience in the care of a 43-year-old man who sustained C4–5 spondyloptosis while riding an all-terrain vehicle. On arrival, the patient demonstrated no motor function below C-4 but had sensation to the nipple line (American Spinal Injury Association Spinal Cord Injury Classification B). The patient's cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated complete spondyloptosis at C4–5. The patient was immediately placed in cervical traction and taken to the operating room for open reduction of the fracture dislocation, decompression of the spinal cord, and stabilization with an interbody graft and cervical plate. Preoperative cervical traction was successful in only partial reduction of the fracture dislocation. Open reduction was achieved with exposure of the C-4 and C-5 bodies and sequential distraction. After anatomical alignment was achieved, an interbody graft was placed and a cervical plate secured. A subsequent decline in the patient's level of consciousness prompted CT of the head, which showed evidence of a basilar artery thrombosis. A CT angiographic study demonstrated patency of the vertebral arteries, but a mid–basilar artery thrombosis. The patient progressed to brain death 24 hours after reduction of the fracture dislocation.

The degree of contortion of the vertebral arteries in cervical spondyloptosis in the upper cervical spine may result in stasis of flow with subsequent formation of thrombus or intimal injury. After anatomical reduction, restoration of flow within the vertebral arteries may mobilize the thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection and result in subsequent embolic events. Endovascular evaluation may be warranted immediately after anatomical reduction of a high cervical spondyloptosis for evaluation of the vertebral arteries and possible thrombus dissolution or retrieval.

Restricted access

Srujan Kopparapu, Gordon Mao, Brendan F. Judy, and Nicholas Theodore

Determination of the optimal approach to traumatic atlas fractures with or without transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) injury requires a nuanced understanding of the biomechanics of the atlantoaxial complex. The "rule of Spence" (ROS) was created in 1970 in a landmark effort to streamline management of burst-type atlas fractures. The ROS states that radiographic evidence of lateral mass displacement (LMD) (i.e., the distance that the C1 lateral masses extend beyond the C2 superior articular processes) greater than 6.9 mm may indicate both a torn TAL and need for surgical management. Since then, the ROS has become ubiquitous in the spine literature about atlas injuries. However, in the decades since the original paper by Spence et al., modern research efforts and imaging advancements have revealed that the ROS is inaccurate on both fronts: it neither accurately predicts a TAL injury nor does it inform surgical decision-making. The purpose of this review was to delineate the history of the ROS, demonstrate its limitations, present findings in the existing literature on ROS and LMD thresholds, and discuss the current landscape of management techniques for TAL injuries, including parameters such as the atlantodental interval and type of injury according to the Dickman classification system and AO Spine upper cervical injury classification system. The ROS was revolutionary for initially investigating and later propelling the biomechanical and clinical understanding of atlas fractures and TAL injuries; however, it is time to retire its legacy as a rule.

Restricted access

Ronald H. Uscinski

Restricted access

Paul D. Sawin, Nicholas Theodore, and Harold L. Rekate

✓ Gangliogliomas of the spinal cord are rare disease entities that occur in early childhood. Their occurrence in association with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) has not been described. The authors describe the unique case of a 2-year-old child with stigmata of NF2 who harbored a spinal cord ganglioglioma that presented as a rapidly growing, exophytic intramedullary mass lesion at the cervicomedullary junction. Treatment consisted of complete surgical resection. Histopathological analysis of the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of neoplastic cells, of both neuronal and glial lineage, that supported the diagnosis of ganglioglioma.

Restricted access

A. Karim Ahmed, Eduardo Martinez-del-Campo, and Nicholas Theodore

The role of chief White House physician has traditionally been held by an individual with a background in a broad medical field, such as emergency medicine, family medicine, or internal medicine. Dr. Daniel Ruge, who served as the director of the Spinal Cord Injury Service for the Veterans Administration and was appointed during President Ronald Reagan’s first term, was the first neurosurgeon to become the chief White House physician. Aside from being the first neurosurgeon to serve in this capacity, Dr. Ruge also stands apart from others who have held this esteemed position because of how he handled Reagan’s care after an attempt was made on the then-president’s life. Instead of calling upon leading medical authorities of the time to care for the president, Dr. Ruge instead decided that Reagan should be treated as any trauma patient would be treated. Dr. Ruge’s actions after the assassination attempt on President Reagan resulted in the rapid, smooth recovery of the then-president. Daniel Ruge’s background, his high-profile roles and heavy responsibilities, and his critical decision-making are characteristics that make his role in the history of medicine and of neurosurgery unique.

Restricted access

Michael J. Schneider

Restricted access
Restricted access
Free access

Nicholas Theodore, Paul M. Arnold, and Ankit I. Mehta