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Nicholas Sader, Walter Hader, Aaron Hockley, Valerie Kirk, Adetayo Adeleye, and Jay Riva-Cambrin

OBJECTIVE

Chiari 1.5 malformation is a subgroup of the Chiari malformation in which tonsillar descent into the foramen magnum is accompanied by brainstem descent. No data exist on whether operative decompression in patients with Chiari 1.5 improves sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) and whether there are radiological parameters predicting improvement.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive pediatric patients with Chiari 1.5 malformation and SRBDs at the Alberta Children’s Hospital. An SRBD was characterized using nocturnal polysomnography (PSG), specifically with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the obstructive apnea index, and the central apnea index. Preoperative values for each of these indices were compared to those following surgical decompression. The authors also compared preoperative radiographic factors as predictors to both preoperative AHI and the change in AHI with surgery. Radiological factors included tonsillar and obex descent beneath the basion–opisthion line, the presence of syringomyelia, the frontooccipital horn ratio, the pB–C2 line, and the clivoaxial angle.

RESULTS

Seven patients (5 males, 2 females) met inclusion criteria. One patient had two surgical decompressions, each with pre- and postoperative PSG studies (n = 8). The median age was 9 years. Before surgical decompression, 75% underwent tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy. The majority (87.5%) experienced snoring/witnessed apnea preoperatively. The median tonsillar and obex descent values were 21.3 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively. The median values for the pB–C2 line and clivoaxial angle were 5.4 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 4.5 mm, 6.8 mm) and 144° (IQR 139°, 167°), respectively. There was a statistically significant change from preoperative to postoperative AHI (19.7 vs 5.1, p = 0.015) and obstructive apnea index (4.5 vs 1.0, p = 0.01). There was no significant change in the central apnea index with surgery (0.9 vs 0.3, p = 0.12). No radiological factors were statistically significant in predicting preoperative AHI and change in AHI.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first series of pediatric patients with Chiari 1.5 with SRBDs who demonstrated a marked improvement in their PSG results postdecompression. Sleep apnea has a significant impact on learning and development in children, highlighting the urgency to recognize Chiari 1.5 as a more severe form of the Chiari I malformation.

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Nicholas Sader, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Matthew E. Eagles, Salim Ahmed, Jenna E. Koschnitzky, and Jay Riva-Cambrin

OBJECTIVE

YouTube has become an important information source for pediatric neurosurgical patients and their families. The goal of this study was to determine whether the informative quality of videos of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV + CPC) is associated with metrics of popularity.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study used comprehensive search terms to identify videos pertaining to ETV and ETV + CPC presented on the first 3 pages of search results on YouTube. Two pediatric neurosurgeons, 1 neurosurgery resident, and 2 patient families independently reviewed the selected videos. Videos were assessed for overall informational quality by using a validated 5-point Global Quality Score (GQS) and compared to online metrics of popularity and engagement such as views, likes, likes/views ratio, comments/views ratio, and likes/dislikes ratio. Weighted kappa scores were used to measure agreement between video reviewers.

RESULTS

A total of 58 videos (47 on ETV, 7 on ETV + CPC, 4 on both) of 120 videos assessed met the inclusion criteria. Video styles included “technical” (62%), “lecture” (24%), “patient testimonial” (4%), and “other” (10%). In terms of GQS, substantial agreement was seen between surgeons (kappa 0.67 [95% CI 0.55, 0.80]) and excellent agreement was found between each surgeon and the neurosurgical resident (0.77 [95% CI 0.66, 0.88] and 0.89 [95% CI 0.82, 0.97]). Only fair to moderate agreement was seen between professionals and patient families, with weighted kappa scores ranging from 0.07 to 0.56. Academic lectures were more likely to be rated good or excellent (64% vs 0%, p < 0.001) versus surgical procedure and testimonial video types. There were significant associations between a better GQS and more likes (p = 0.01), views (p = 0.02), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.016). The likes/views ratio (p = 0.31) and comments/views ratio (p = 0.35) were not associated with GQS. The number of likes (p = 0.02), views (p = 0.03), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.015) were significantly associated with video style (highest for lecture-style videos).

CONCLUSIONS

Medical professionals tended to agree when assessing the overall quality of YouTube videos, but this agreement was not as strongly seen when compared to parental ratings. The online metrics of likes, views, and likes/dislikes ratio appear to predict quality. Neurosurgeons seeking to increase their online footprint via YouTube would be well advised to focus more on the academic lecture style because these were universally better rated.