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Gail L. Rosseau, Shelly D. Timmons, Karin M. Muraszko, Katharine J. Drummond, Mary Murphy, Nelci Zanon, and Farideh Nejat

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Giselle Coelho, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Nelci Zanon


Craniosynostosis is a premature cranial suture junction and requires a craniectomy to decrease cranial compression and remodel the affected areas of the skull. However, mastering these neurosurgical procedures requires many years of supervised training. The use of surgical simulation can reduce the risk of intraoperative error. The authors propose a new instrument for neurosurgical education, which mixes reality with virtual and realistic simulation for repair of craniosynostosis (scaphocephaly type).


This study tested reality simulators with a synthetic thermo-retractile/thermosensitive rubber joined with different polymers. To validate the model, 18 experienced surgeons participated in this study using 3D videos developed using 3DS Max software. Renier’s “H” technique for craniosynostosis correction was applied during the simulation. All participants completed questionnaires to evaluate the simulator.


An expert surgical team approved the craniosynostosis reality and virtual simulators. More than 94% of participants found the simulator relevant, considering aspects such as weight, surgical positioning, dissection by planes, and cranial reconstruction. The consistency and material resistance were also approved on average by more than 60% of the surgeons.


The virtual simulator demands a high degree of effectiveness with 3D perception in anatomy and operative strategies in neurosurgical training. Physical and virtual simulation with mixed reality required psychomotor and cognitive abilities otherwise acquired only during practical surgical training with supervision.

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Eylem Ocal, Eliana E. Kim, Milagros Niquen-Jimenez, Gleice Salibe de Oliveira, Souad Bakhti, Suchanda Bhattacharjee, Giselle Coelho, Wirginia Maixner, Martina Messing-Jünger, Nabila Taghlit, and Nelci Zanon

Pediatric neurosurgery is an ever-evolving field, and at the heart of it are talented and hardworking neurosurgeons who harness technology and research to enhance the standard of neurosurgical care for children. Recent studies have found that female neurosurgeons tend to choose a career focused on pediatric neurosurgery more than other subspecialties. However, the achievements and contributions of women in pediatric neurosurgery are not well known. To address this, an international working group of pediatric neurosurgeons was established from the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Women in Neurosurgery (WINS) group and Pediatric Neurosurgery Committee. The working group reviewed the current literature and collected information through personal communications with the global WINS network. Despite the increasing number of women entering neurosurgical training, the number of female pediatric neurosurgeons is still a mere handful worldwide. In this article, the authors summarize the current status of female pediatric neurosurgeons across the globe, highlighting their achievements as well as the gender bias and challenges that they face at every level of progression of their career. A better organized pediatric neurosurgery workforce, with more female representation and mentorship, would encourage future generations of diverse genders toward a career in this field.

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Rebecca A. Reynolds and John C. Wellons III