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Paul R. Gigante, Neil A. Feldstein, and Richard C. E. Anderson

Os odontoideum is a common cause of atlantoaxial instability in the pediatric population. The authors present the cases of 2 patients whose initial clinical presentation and MR imaging findings were suggestive of an intramedullary neoplasm, but whose ultimate diagnosis was determined to be cervical spine instability and cord injury due to os odontoideum.

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Jason A. Ellis, Paul C. McCormick II, Neil A. Feldstein, and Saadi Ghatan

OBJECT

Cystic lesions in the atrium (trigone) of the lateral ventricle may become symptomatic due to obstruction of physiological CSF circulation and/or from mass effect on adjacent structures. A minimally invasive approach that not only allows for straightforward access to multiple regions of the atrial cyst wall, but also enables direct inspection of the entire lateral ventricular system, has not been elaborated. In this paper the authors describe their experience with the endoscopic transoccipital horn approach for treating cystic lesions in the atrium of the lateral ventricle.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent endoscopic surgical treatment for cysts in the atrium of the lateral ventricle between 1999 and 2014.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 13 consecutive patients who presented with symptomatic lateral ventricular entrapment due to the presence of an atrial cyst. There were 9 male and 4 female patients, with a median age of 5 years. Headache was the most common complaint at presentation. The transoccipital horn approach facilitated successful cyst reduction and fenestration in all cases. Temporal and occipital horn entrapment was reversed in all cases, with reestablishment of a physiological CSF flow pattern throughout the ventricles. Hydrocephalus was also reversed in all patients presenting with this neuroimaging finding at presentation. No cyst or ventricular entrapment was noted to recur during a mean follow-up period of 36 months. No patient in the study cohort required repeat surgery or permanent CSF diversion postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

The endoscopic transoccipital horn approach represents a safe and effective treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic atrial cysts of the lateral ventricle. Using this minimally invasive technique, all poles of the lateral ventricular system can be visualized and the unobstructed flow of CSF can be confirmed after cyst resection obviating the need for additional diversion.

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Jason A. Ellis, Juan C. Mejia Munne, Neil A. Feldstein, and Philip M. Meyers

Sinus pericranii is an uncommon congenital cranial venous malformation that may become symptomatic in the pediatric population. Both dominant and accessory sinus pericranii, as determined by the intracranial venous drainage pattern, have been described. The dominant variety drain a significant proportion of the intracranial venous outflow while the accessory variety have minimal or no role in this. Classic teachings hold that dominant sinus pericranii should never be treated while accessory sinus pericranii may be safely obliterated. This determination of dominance is solely based on a qualitative assessment of standard venous phase catheter cerebral angiography, leaving some doubt regarding the actual safety of obliteration. In this paper the authors describe a simple and unique method for determining whether intracranial venous outflow may be compromised by sinus pericranii treatment. This involves performing catheter angiography while the lesion is temporarily obliterated by external compression. Analysis of intracranial venous outflow in this setting allows visualization of angiographic changes that will occur once the sinus pericranii is permanently obliterated. Thus, the safety of surgical intervention can be more fully appraised using this technique.

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Alfred T. Ogden, Neil A. Feldstein, and Paul C. McCormick

Although there has been considerable experience with anterior approaches to ventral intradural, extramedullary, and pial-based spinal lesions, there is no information in the literature regarding the safety and feasibility of the resection of an intramedullary tumor via an anterior approach. The authors report on the gross-total resection of an intramedullary cervical pilocytic astrocytoma via a C-7 corpectomy and anterior myelotomy. The surgery proceeded without complication, and postoperatively the patient maintained the preoperative deficit of mild unilateral hand weakness but had no sensory deficits. Follow-up MR imaging at 6 months showed gross-total macroscopic resection. Selected intramedullary tumors can be safely removed via an anterior approach. This approach avoids the typical sensory dysfunction associated with posterior midline myelotomy.

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Expansion of arachnoid cysts in children

Report of two cases and review of the literature

Ganesh Rao, Richard C. E. Anderson, Neil A. Feldstein, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer

✓Arachnoid cysts are intracranial, space-occupying lesions that typically remain stable in size on serial imaging. The authors describe two cases of rapidly enlarging arachnoid cysts, including one located in the anterior fossa.

In the first case a 7-month-old boy presented with increasing head circumference and a rapidly enlarging arachnoid cyst in the left middle fossa, which had been documented by serial imaging over the preceding 6 months. In the second case a 4-year-old girl presented with an arachnoid cyst compressing the right frontal lobe. The cyst had not been present on imaging studies performed during the perinatal period. In both cases, a craniotomy for open fenestration of the cyst was performed with successful resolution of the mass effect.

Rare cases of expansion of arachnoid cysts have been reported in the literature. In this article the authors report the dramatic enlargement of two arachnoid cysts, including the first description of enlargement of an arachnoid cyst located in the anterior fossa.

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Hannah E. Goldstein, Neil A. Feldstein, and Richard C. E. Anderson

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Brian J. A. Gill, Dominique M. Higgins, Matei A. Banu, Michael G. Argenziano, Neil A. Feldstein, and Jeffrey N. Bruce

Germ cell tumors account for up to 53% of the malignant lesions found in the pineal region and are typically managed with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Malignant somatic transformation of intracranial germ cell tumors is exceedingly rare and has only been reported on two other occasions. Here the authors present the case of a pineal yolk sac tumor that failed optimum first-line treatment and underwent malignant somatic transformation to an enteric mucinous adenocarcinoma requiring surgical intervention. This video demonstrates the technical nuances of the occipital transtentorial approach and the safe microsurgical dissection of lesions within the pineal region.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2151.

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Todd C. Hankinson, Elizabeth J. Fontana, Richard C. E. Anderson, and Neil A. Feldstein

The traditional reasons for surgical intervention in children with single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) are cosmetic improvement and the avoidance/treatment of intracranial hypertension, which has been thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits. Despite considerable work on the topic, the exact prevalence of intracranial hypertension in the population of patients with SSC is unknown, although it appears to be present in only a minority. Additionally, recent neuropsychological and anatomical literature suggests that the subtle neurocognitive deficits identified in children with a history of SSC may not result from external compression. They may instead reflect an underlying developmental condition that includes disordered primary CNS development and early suture fusion. This implies that current surgical techniques are unlikely to prevent neurocognitive deficits in patients with SSC. As such, the most common indication for surgical treatment in SSC is cosmetic, and most patients benefit from considerable subjective cosmetic normalization following surgery. Pediatric craniofacial surgeons have not, however, agreed upon objective means to assess postoperative cranial morphological improvement. We should therefore endeavor to agree upon objective craniometric tools for the assessment of operative outcomes, allowing us to accurately compare the various surgical techniques that are currently available.

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Benjamin C. Kennedy, Michael B. Cloney, Richard C. E. Anderson, and Neil A. Feldstein

OBJECT

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare neoplasms, often found in the atrium of the lateral ventricle of infants, and cause overproduction hydrocephalus. The extensive vascularity and medially located blood supply of these tumors, coupled with the young age of the patients, can make prevention of blood loss challenging. Preoperative embolization has been advocated to reduce blood loss and prevent the need for transfusion, but this mandates radiation exposure and the additional risks of vessel injury and stroke. For these reasons, the authors present their experience using the superior parietal lobule approach to CPPs of the atrium without adjunct therapy.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented to Columbia University/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York with a CPP in the atrium of the lateral ventricle and who underwent surgery using a superior parietal lobule approach without preoperative embolization.

RESULTS

Nine children were included, with a median age of 7 months. There were no perioperative complications or new neurological deficits. All patients had intraoperative blood loss of less than 100 ml, with a mean minimum hematocrit of 26.9% (range 19.6%–36.2%). No patients required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up was 39 months, during which time no patient demonstrated residual or recurrent tumor on MRI, nor did any have an increase in ventricular size or require CSF diversion.

CONCLUSIONS

The superior parietal lobule approach is safe and effective for very young children with CPPs in the atrium of the lateral ventricle. The results suggest that preoperative embolization is not essential to avoid transfusion or achieve overall good outcomes in these patients. This management strategy avoids radiation exposure and the additional risks associated with embolization.

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Birce Dilge Taskin, Kurenai Tanji, Neil A. Feldstein, Maureen McSwiggan-Hardin, and Cigdem I. Akman

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis can manifest with different clinical presentations, including acute monophasic illness and biphasic chronic granulomatous HSV encephalitis. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and very rare late relapses are associated with intractable epilepsy and progressive neurological deficits with or without evidence of HSV in the cerebrospinal fluid. The authors report on an 8-year-old girl with a history of treated HSV-1 encephalitis when she was 13 months of age and focal epilepsy when she was 2 years old. Although free of clinical seizures, when she was 5, she experienced behavioral and academic dysfunction, which was later attributed to electrographic focal seizures and worsening electroencephalography (EEG) findings with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES). Following a right temporal lobectomy, chronic granulomatous encephalitis was diagnosed. The patient's clinical course improved with the resolution of seizures and EEG abnormalities.