Kelly Wright, Polly Young, Cristina Brickman, Teena Sam, Neeraj Badjatia, Marcus Pereira, E. Sander Connolly and Michael T. Yin
The authors evaluated the rates of ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) after antibiotic-coated extraventricular drains (ac-EVDs) were introduced as the standard of care.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult patients admitted to NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital neurological intensive care unit in whom an EVD was placed between February 2007 and November 2009, excluding individuals receiving EVDs due to an infection of a primary device. Three time periods were defined depending on type of EVD in use: Period 1, conventional EVDs; Period 2, either ac-EVDs or conventional EVDs; and Period 3, ac-EVDs. Definite/probable VRIs that occurred during the 3 periods were evaluated and established as determinants of VRIs by using a Cox proportional hazards model. Prolonged systemic antibiotics were given for the duration of EVD placement in each of the 3 periods per institutional policy.
Data from 141 individuals were evaluated; mean patient age was 53.8 ± 17.2 years and 54% were female. There were 2 definite and 19 probable VRIs. The incidence of definite/probable VRI (per 1000 person-catheter days) decreased from Period 1 to 3 (24.5, 16.2, and 4.4 in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; p < 0.0001). Patients with VRIs were more likely to be female than male (23.7% vs 3.1%, p < 0.003) and have had an EVD in place for a longer duration, although there was no significant difference among the 3 periods (7.9 ± 6.7 [Period 1], 8.1 ± 7.1 [Period 2], and 8.6 ± 5.8 [Period 3] mean days; p = 0.87, ANOVA). Analysis of effect modification in a stepwise model showed that period, age, and age and female interaction were significant predictors of VRIs. The period was the strongest predictor of VRI (p = 0.0075). After adjustment for age and age and sex interaction, the survival rate was 53% at the end of Period 2 and 91% at the end of Period 3.
Rates of VRIs have decreased with the addition of ac-EVDs to the routine use of prolonged systemic antibiotics at the authors' institution.
Brad E. Zacharia, Kerry A. Vaughan, Zachary L. Hickman, Samuel S. Bruce, Amanda M. Carpenter, Nils H. Petersen, Stacie Deiner, Neeraj Badjatia and E. Sander Connolly Jr
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently complicated by acute hydrocephalus, necessitating emergency CSF diversion with a subset of patients, ultimately requiring long-term treatment via placement of permanent ventricular shunts. It is unclear what factors may predict the need for ventricular shunt placement in this patient population.
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective database (ICH Outcomes Project) containing patients with nontraumatic ICH admitted to the neurological ICU at Columbia University Medical Center between January 2009 and September 2011. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after ICH. The following variables were included: patient age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, temporal horn diameter on admission CT imaging, bicaudate index, admission ICH volume and location, intraventricular hemorrhage volume, Graeb score, LeRoux score, third or fourth ventricle hemorrhage, and intracranial pressure (ICP) and ventriculitis during hospital stay.
Of 210 patients prospectively enrolled in the ICH Outcomes Project, 64 required emergency CSF diversion via placement of an external ventricular drain and were included in the final cohort. Thirteen of these patients underwent permanent ventricular CSF shunting prior to discharge. In univariate analysis, only thalamic hemorrhage and elevated ICP were significantly associated with the requirement for permanent CSF diversion, with p values of 0.008 and 0.033, respectively. Each remained significant in a multiple logistic regression model in which both variables were present.
Of patients with ICH requiring emergency CSF diversion, those with persistently elevated ICP and thalamic location of their hemorrhage are at increased odds of developing persistent hydrocephalus, necessitating permanent ventricular shunt placement. These factors may assist in predicting which patients will require permanent CSF diversion and could ultimately lead to improvements in the management of this disorder and the outcome in patients with ICH.
Aaron P. Wessell, Matthew J. Kole, Gregory Cannarsa, Jeffrey Oliver, Gaurav Jindal, Timothy Miller, Dheeraj Gandhi, Gunjan Parikh, Neeraj Badjatia, E. Francois Aldrich and J. Marc Simard
The authors sought to evaluate whether a sustained systemic inflammatory response was associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A retrospective analysis of 193 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was performed. Management of hydrocephalus followed a stepwise algorithm to determine the need for external CSF drainage and subsequent shunt placement. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) data were collected for all patients during the first 7 days of hospitalization. Patients who met the SIRS criteria every day for the first 7 days of hospitalization were considered as having a sustained SIRS. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine predictors of shunt dependence.
Sixteen percent of patients required shunt placement. Sustained SIRS was observed in 35% of shunt-dependent patients compared to 14% in non–shunt-dependent patients (p = 0.004). On multivariate logistic regression, female sex (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.142–0.885), moderate to severe vasospasm (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.333–10.745), acute hydrocephalus (OR 21.39, 95% CI 2.260–202.417), and sustained SIRS (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.125–7.689) were significantly associated with shunt dependence after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 for the final regression model.
Sustained SIRS was a predictor of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage even after adjustment for potential confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model.
Bartosz T. Grobelny, Andrew F. Ducruet, Peter A. DeRosa, Ivan S. Kotchetkov, Brad E. Zacharia, Zachary L. Hickman, Luis Fernandez, Reshma Narula, Jan Claassen, Kiwon Lee, Neeraj Badjatia, Stephan A. Mayer and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is an enzyme that metabolizes homocysteine to form H2S in the brain. Hydrogen sulfide functions as a vasodilator as well as a regulator of neuronal ion channels and multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Given the myriad effects of H2S, the authors hypothesized that patients possessing gain-of-function polymorphisms of the CBS gene will experience a decreased incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
Patients were enrolled in a prospective observational database of aSAH outcomes. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and sequenced for 3 functional polymorphisms of the CBS gene (699C→T, 844ins68, and 1080C→T) by polymerase chain reaction. Serum homocysteine levels (μmol/L) were assayed. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between CBS genotype and occurrence of both angiographic vasospasm and DCI.
There were 87 patients included in the study. None of the polymorphisms investigated were significantly associated with the incidence of angiographic vasospasm. However, after controlling for admission hypertension, patients with the gain-of-function 844 WT/ins genotypes were less likely to experience DCI relative to those with the 844 WT/WT genotype (86 patients, p = 0.050), while the decrease-in-function genotype 1080 TT was more likely to experience DCI relative to those with 1080 CC and CT genotypes (84 patients, p = 0.042). Serum homocysteine levels did not correlate with the extent of either angiographic vasospasm or DCI in this analysis.
Polymorphisms of the CBS gene that impart gain-of-function may be associated with a reduced risk of DCI after aSAH, independent of serum homocysteine. Signaling through H2S may mediate protection from DCI following aSAH through a mechanism that does not involve macrovascular vasodilation.
J. Michael Schmidt, Katja E. Wartenberg, Andres Fernandez, Jan Claassen, Fred Rincon, Noeleen D. Ostapkovich, Neeraj Badjatia, Augusto Parra, E. Sander Connolly and Stephan A. Mayer
The authors sought to determine frequency, risk factors, and impact on outcome of asymptomatic cerebral infarction due to vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
The authors prospectively studied 580 patients with SAH admitted to their center between July 1996 and May 2002. Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) from vasospasm was defined as 1) a new focal neurological deficit or decrease in level of consciousness, 2) a new infarct revealed by follow-up CT imaging, or both, after excluding causes other than vasospasm. Outcome at 3 months was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale.
Delayed cerebral ischemia occurred in 121 (21%) of 580 patients. Of those with DCI, 36% (44 patients) experienced neurological deterioration without a corresponding infarct, 42% (51 patients) developed an infarct in conjunction with neurological deterioration, and 21% (26 patients) had a new infarct on CT without concurrent neurological deterioration. In a multivariate analysis, risk factors for asymptomatic DCI included coma on admission, placement of an external ventricular drain, and smaller volumes of SAH (all p ≤ 0.03). Patients with asymptomatic DCI were less likely to be treated with vasopressor agents than those with symptomatic DCI (64 vs 86%, p = 0.01). After adjusting for clinical grade, age, and aneurysm size, the authors found that there was a higher frequency of death or moderate-to-severe disability at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale Score 4–6) in patients with asymptomatic DCI than in patients with symptomatic DCI (73 vs 40%, adjusted odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3–12.0, p = 0.017).
Approximately 20% of episodes of DCI after SAH are characterized by cerebral infarction in the absence of clinical symptoms. Asymptomatic DCI is particularly common in comatose patients and is associated with poor outcome. Strategies directed at diagnosing and preventing asymptomatic infarction from vasospasm in patients with poor-grade SAH are needed.
Fred Rincon, Errol Gordon, Robert M. Starke, Manuel M. Buitrago, Andres Fernandez, J. Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Katja E. Wartenberg, Jennifer Frontera, David B. Seder, David Palestrant, E. Sander Connolly, Kiwon Lee, Stephan A. Mayer and Neeraj Badjatia
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
The authors evaluated the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in a consecutive cohort of 580 patients with SAH who were admitted to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit of Columbia University Medical Center between July 1996 and September 2002. Patient demographics, 24-hour admission variables, initial CT scan characteristics, daily transcranial Doppler variables, and development of in-hospital complications were analyzed. Odds ratios and 95% CIs for candidate predictors were calculated using multivariate nominal logistic regression.
Admission glucose of at least 126 mg/dl (adjusted OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.6), admission brain CT scan with a bicaudate index of at least 0.20 (adjusted OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.0–2.0), Fisher Grade 4 (adjusted OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.2–5.7), fourth ventricle hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.1–2.7), and development of nosocomial meningitis (adjusted OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.7) were independently associated with shunt dependency.
These data suggest that permanent CSF diversion after aneurysmal SAH may be independently predicted by hyperglycemia at admission, findings on the admission CT scan (Fisher Grade 4, fourth ventricle intraventricular hemorrhage, and bicaudate index ≥ 0.20), and development of nosocomial meningitis. Future research is needed to assess if tight glycemic control, reduction of fourth ventricle clot burden, and prevention of nosocomial meningitis may reduce the need for permanent CSF diversion after aneurysmal SAH.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010