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Robert Heller, Daniel R. Calnan, Michael Lanfranchi, Neel Madan and Adel M. Malek

Object

Incomplete stent apposition of the closed cell–design Enterprise stent following stent-mediated coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms has been associated with increased risk of periprocedural thromboembolic events. In this study, the authors seek to determine the natural history of incomplete stent apposition and evaluate the clinical implications of the phenomenon.

Methods

Since January 2009, all patients receiving Enterprise stents in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms at the authors' institution have undergone serial 3-T MRI with incomplete stent apposition identified by the crescent sign on multiplanar reconstructions of MR angiograms. Magnetic resonance images and MR angiograms obtained at 3, 9, and 18 months after stent-assisted coil embolization were analyzed along with admission and follow-up clinical medical records. These records were evaluated for any radiographic and clinical, transient or permanent ischemic neurological events.

Results

Fifty patients receiving Enterprise stents were eligible for inclusion and analysis in the study. Incomplete stent apposition was identified in postoperative imaging studies in 22 (44%) of 50 patients, with 19 (86%) of 22 crescent signs persisting and 3 (14%) of 22 crescent signs resolving on subsequent serial imaging. Delayed ischemic events occurred in 8 (16%) of 50 cases, and all cases involved patients with incomplete stent apposition. The events were transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in 5 cases, asymptomatic radiographic strokes in 2 cases, and symptomatic strokes and TIAs in the final case. There were no delayed ischemic events in patients who did not have incomplete stent apposition. Only 1 of the delayed ischemic events (2%) was permanent and symptomatic. The postoperative presence of a crescent sign and persistence of the crescent sign were both significantly associated with delayed ischemic events (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusions

Incomplete stent apposition is a temporally persistent phenomenon, which resolves spontaneously in only a small minority of cases and appears to be a risk factor for delayed ischemic events. Although further follow-up is needed, these results suggest that longer duration of antiplatelet therapy and clinical follow-up may be warranted in cases of recognized incomplete stent apposition.

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Marie Roguski, Brent Morel, Megan Sweeney, Jordan Talan, Leslie Rideout, Ron I. Riesenburger, Neel Madan and Steven Hwang

OBJECT

Traumatic head injury (THI) is a highly prevalent condition in the United States, and concern regarding excess radiation-related cancer mortality has placed focus on limiting the use of CT in the evaluation of pediatric patients with THI. Given the success of rapid-acquisition MRI in the evaluation of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction in pediatric patient populations, this study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of MRI in the setting of acute THI.

METHODS

Medical records of 574 pediatric admissions for THI to a Level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent both CT and MRI examinations of the head within a 5-day period. Thirty-five patients were found, and diagnostic images were available for 30 patients. De-identified images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist for presence of any injury, intracranial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and skull fracture. Radiology reports were used to calculate interrater reliability scores. Baseline demographics and concordance analysis was performed with Stata version 13.

RESULTS

The mean age of the 30-patient cohort was 8.5 ± 6.7 years, and 63.3% were male. The mean Injury Severity Score was 13.7 ± 9.2, and the mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9 ± 5.7. Radiology reports noted 150 abnormal findings. CT scanning missed findings in 12 patients; the missed findings included DAI (n = 5), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 6), small subdural hematomas (n = 6), cerebral contusions (n = 3), and an encephalocele. The CT scan was negative in 3 patients whose subsequent MRI revealed findings. MRI missed findings in 13 patients; missed findings included skull fracture (n = 5), small subdural hematomas (n = 4), cerebral contusions (n = 3), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 3), and DAI (n = 1). MRI was negative in 1 patient whose preceding CT scan was read as positive for injury. Although MRI more frequently reported intracranial findings than CT scanning, there was no statistically significant difference between CT and MRI in the detection of any intracranial injury (p = 0.63), DAI (p = 0.22), or intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.25). CT scanning tended to more frequently identify skull fractures than MRI (p = 0.06).

CONCLUSIONS

MRI may be as sensitive as CT scanning in the detection of THI, DAI, and intracranial hemorrhage, but missed skull fractures in 5 of 13 patients. MRI may be a useful alternative to CT scanning in select stable patients with mild THI who warrant neuroimaging by clinical decision rules.

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James K. Liu, Michael S. Tenner, Oren N. Gottfried, Edwin A. Stevens, Joshua M. Rosenow, Neel Madan, Joel D. Macdonald, John R. W. Kestle and William T. Couldwell

Object. Cerebral vasospasm that is caused by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and that is refractory to maximal medical management can be treated with selective intraarterial papaverine infusions. The effects of single papaverine treatments on cerebral circulation time are well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of multiple, repeated papaverine infusions on the cerebral circulation time in patients with recurrent vasospasm.

Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in 17 patients who received multiple intraarterial papaverine infusions in 91 carotid artery (CA) territories for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral circulation times were measured from the first angiographic image, in which peak contrast was seen above the supraclinoid internal CA, to the peak filling of cortical veins. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores assessed 12 months after discharge were reviewed. Cerebral circulation times in 16 CA territories were measured in a control group of 11 patients.

Seventeen patients received a total of 91 papaverine treatments. Prolonged cerebral circulation times improved after 90 (99%) of 91 papaverine treatments. The prepapaverine mean cerebral circulation time was 6.54 seconds (range 3.35–27 seconds) and the immediate postpapaverine mean cerebral circulation time was 4.19 seconds (range 2.1–12.6 seconds), an overall mean decrease of 2.35 seconds (36%, p < 0.001). Recurrent vasospasm reflected by prolonged cerebral circulation times continued to improve with subsequent papaverine infusions. Repeated infusions were just as successful quantitatively as the primary treatment (mean change 2.06 seconds). The mean cerebral circulation time in the control group was 5.21 seconds (range 4–6.8 seconds). In five patients a dramatic reversal of low-attenuation changes was detected on computerized tomography scans. The mean GOS score at 12 months after discharge was 3.4.

Conclusions. The preliminary results indicate that multiple intraarterial papaverine treatments consistently improve cerebral circulation times, even with repeated infusions in cases of recurrent vasospasm.