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Aviva Abosch, Neda Bernasconi, Warren Boling, Marilyn Jones-Gotman, Nicole Poulin, François Dubeau, Frederick Andermann, and André Olivier

Object. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) is used in the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The goal of this study was to determine factors predictive of poor postoperative seizure control (Engel Class III or IV) following SelAH.

Methods. A retrospective study was conducted of 27 patients with poor seizure control postoperatively (Engel III/IV group), in comparison with 27 patients who were free from seizures after surgery (Engel I/II group). The results of electroencephalography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and pathological studies were reviewed, and volumetric MR image analysis was used to compare the extent of the mesial structures that had been resected.

In 56% of patients in the Engel III/IV group, significant bitemporal abnormalities were displayed on preoperative EEG studies, compared with 24% of patients in the Engel I/II group (p < 0.05). An analysis of preoperative MR images disclosed five patients (19%) in the Engel III/IV group and no patient in the Engel I/II group with normal hippocampal volumes bilaterally. Thirteen patients in the Engel III/IV group subsequently underwent either extension of the SelAH (six cases) or a corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (seven patients). Three patients from the former and one patient from the latter subgroup subsequently became seizure free (four patients total [34%]). The remaining nine patients did not improve, despite the fact that they had undergone near-total resection of mesial structures.

Conclusions. The majority of patients receiving suboptimal seizure control following SelAH did not meet the criteria for unilateral MTLE, based on EEG, MR imaging, and/or histopathological studies. These patients were therefore unlikely to benefit from additional resection of mesial structures. With the benefits of modern imaging, and by strict adherence to selection criteria, SelAH can be predicted to yield excellent postoperative seizure control for nearly all patients with unilateral MTLE. There remains a subpopulation, however, that meets the criteria for MTLE, but does not become free from seizure following SelAH.

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Solon Schur, Jeremy T. Moreau, Hui Ming Khoo, Andreas Koupparis, Elisabeth Simard Tremblay, Kenneth A. Myers, Bradley Osterman, Bernard Rosenblatt, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Christine Saint-Martin, Sophie Turpin, Jeff Hall, Andre Olivier, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Sylvain Baillet, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman, and Roy W. R. Dudley

OBJECTIVE

In an attempt to improve postsurgical seizure outcomes for poorly defined cases (PDCs) of pediatric focal epilepsy (i.e., those that are not visible or well defined on 3T MRI), the authors modified their presurgical evaluation strategy. Instead of relying on concordance between video-electroencephalography and 3T MRI and using functional imaging and intracranial recording in select cases, the authors systematically used a multimodal, 3-tiered investigation protocol that also involved new collaborations between their hospital, the Montreal Children’s Hospital, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. In this study, the authors examined how their new strategy has impacted postsurgical outcomes. They hypothesized that it would improve postsurgical seizure outcomes, with the added benefit of identifying a subset of tests contributing the most.

METHODS

Chart review was performed for children with PDCs who underwent resection following the new strategy (i.e., new protocol [NP]), and for the same number who underwent treatment previously (i.e., preprotocol [PP]); ≥ 1-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Well-defined, multifocal, and diffuse hemispheric cases were excluded. Preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics, resection volumes, and pathology, as well as seizure outcomes (Engel class Ia vs > Ia) at 1 year postsurgery and last follow-up were reviewed.

RESULTS

Twenty-two consecutive NP patients were compared with 22 PP patients. There was no difference between the two groups for resection volumes, pathology, or preoperative characteristics, except that the NP group underwent more presurgical evaluation tests (p < 0.001). At 1 year postsurgery, 20 of 22 NP patients and 10 of 22 PP patients were seizure free (OR 11.81, 95% CI 2.00–69.68; p = 0.006). Magnetoencephalography and PET/MRI were associated with improved postsurgical seizure outcomes, but both were highly correlated with the protocol group (i.e., independent test effects could not be demonstrated).

CONCLUSIONS

A new presurgical evaluation strategy for children with PDCs of focal epilepsy led to improved postsurgical seizure freedom. No individual presurgical evaluation test was independently associated with improved outcome, suggesting that it may be the combined systematic protocol and new interinstitutional collaborations that makes the difference rather than any individual test.