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Shawn R. Eagle, Anish Puligilla, Vanessa Fazio-Sumrok, Nathan Kegel, Michael W. Collins, and Anthony P. Kontos

OBJECTIVE

No studies to date have investigated the role of early clinical care in time to recovery from concussion in a pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of clinic presentation timing (≤ 7 days [early] compared to 8–20 days [late] from injury) in concussion assessment performance and risk for prolonged recovery (> 30 days) in pediatric concussion.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study from a concussion clinic between April 2016 and January 2019, including 218 children and adolescents with diagnosed concussion, separated based on clinic presentation timing following injury: early (≤ 7 days) and late (8–20 days). Outcomes were recovery time, Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screen (VOMS), and demographics, medical history, and injury information. A general linear model and chi-square analyses were used to assess differences between early and late presentation, along with logistic regression, to predict prolonged recovery (> 30 days).

RESULTS

Those with early presentation reported higher symptoms on VOMS subtests (79%–85%) compared to those with late presentation (61%–78%), with the exception of near-point of convergence distance and visual motion sensitivity (VMS). The strongest predictor of prolonged recovery was number of days to first clinic visit (OR 9.8). Positive VMS (OR 5.18), history of headache/migraine (OR 4.02), and PCSS score (OR 1.04) were also predictive of prolonged recovery.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite patients in the early presentation group presenting with more positive VOMS scores, the early presentation group recovered sooner than patients in the late presentation group. Even after controlling for vestibular dysfunction, history of headache or migraine, and total symptom severity, days to first visit remained the most robust predictor of recovery > 30 days. These findings suggest that early, specialized medical care and intervention for children and adolescents with recent concussion is associated with normal recovery time. Clinicians should educate children and parents on the potential importance of early treatment to improve the odds of positive outcomes following concussion.

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Shawn R. Eagle, Lisa Manderino, Michael Collins, Nathan Kegel, Vanessa Fazio-Sumrok, Anne Mucha, and Anthony P. Kontos

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the best combination of clinical variables associated with concussion subtypes using a multidomain assessment comprising medical history; symptoms; and cognitive, ocular, and vestibular impairment in a cohort of patients presenting to a concussion specialty clinic.

METHODS

Adolescent patients (n = 293) completed demographics and medical history, Concussion Clinical Profiles Screening, Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing, and vestibular ocular motor screening at their first visit (mean 7.6 ± 7.8 days postinjury) to a concussion specialty clinic. Each participant was adjudicated to have one or more subtype (anxiety/mood, cognitive, migraine, ocular, and vestibular) by a healthcare professional based on previously published criteria. A series of backward, stepwise logistic regressions were used to identify significant predictors of concussion subtypes, and predictive probabilities from the logistic regression models were entered into area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) models.

RESULTS

Each of 5 logistic regression models predicting primary subtypes accounted for 28%–50% of the variance (R2 = 0.28–0.50, p < 0.001) and included 2–8 significant predictors per model. Each of the models significantly differentiated the primary subtype from all other subtypes (AUC = 0.76–0.94, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that each concussion subtype can be identified using specific outcomes from a multidomain assessment. Clinicians can employ such an approach to better identify and monitor recovery from subtypes as well as guide interventions.